Principles of Behavior:

ISBN-10: 0205959490

ISBN-13: 9780205959495

Edition: 2013

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Description: Helps readers understand and appreciate behavior analysis Since the first edition of Principles of Behavior, the authors have sought to address the unique needs of students. This title has been written so that students of all levels will benefit from a solid introduction to the principles of behavior. The authors have laid the ground work for behavior analysis through an exploration of experimental, applied, and theoretical concepts. Case studies and everyday examples help readers apply principles of behavior to real life. MySearchLab is a part of the Malott/Trojan program. Research and writing tools, including access to academic journals, help students explore behavioral analysis in even greater depth. To provide students with flexibility, students can download the eText to a tablet using the free Pearson eText app. This title is available in a variety of formats - digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson's MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more.

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Book details

List price: $179.40
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Pearson College Div
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.508
Language: English

Basic Behavioral Contingencies
The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer)
Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)
Escape (Negative Reinforcement)
Punishment (Positive Punishment)
Penalty (Negative Punishment)
Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment)
Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment
Shaping
Motivation
Unlearned Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation
Special Motivating Operations
Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers)
Stimulus Control
Discrimination
Complex Stimulus Control
Imitation
Complex Behavioral Contingencies
Avoidance
Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO)
Ratio Schedules
Interval Schedules
Concurrent Contingencies
Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate
Respondent Conditioning
Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts
Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications
Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory
Pay for Performance
Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com)
Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com)
Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space
Maintenance
Transfer
Research Methods
Research Methods
Jobs and Grad School
Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com)
Basic Behavioral Contingencies
The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer)
Reinforcer
Behavior
Behavior Analysis
Behavior Analyst
Repertoire
Behavioral Intervention
Make Sure Your Assumed Reinforcer Really Reinforces
The Label "Autistic"
Biological Evolution and Reinforcers
Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)
Reinforcement Contingency
Behavioral Contingency
The "Noncontingent" Delivery of Reinforcers
The Delivery of Reinforcers Before the Behavior
Behavior Analysis vs. Bribery
Circular Reasoning and The Error of Reification
Medical-Model Myth
Circular Reasoning and the Medical-Model Myth
How to Talk About Behavior
Reinforce Behavior, not People
Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement
Comments on Reinforcement
Escape (Negative Reinforcement)
Aversive Stimulus
"Aversive" vs. "Adversive"
Escape Contingency
Reinforcement by the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Stimulus
Undesirable Behavior Maintained by Reinforcement by the Removal of Aversive Conditions
Functional Assessment, Not Just a Quick Fix
Sick Social Cycle (Victim's Escape Model)
Learning without Awareness
Fear, Parsimony, and Elegance
Psychiatry vs. Psychology
Psychoanalysis vs. Behavior Analysis
The Toothpaste Theory of Abnormal Behavior
Positive and Negative Reinforcers and Positive and Negative Reinforcement
Punishment (Positive Punishment)
Punishment Contingency
Escape vs. Punishment
Escape: Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Condition
Punishment: Punishment by the Presentation of an Aversive Condition
Overcorrection
Sick Social Cycle (Victim's Punishment Model)
Punishment and Reinforcement
Confusion between Punishment and Aggression
Dependent Variable and Independent Variable
Multiple-Baseline Designs
Informed Consent and Social Validity
Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment
The Myth of the Ineffectiveness of Punishment
Penalty (Negative Punishment)
Penalty Contingency
Response Cost
Time-out
Penalty vs. The Three Other Basic Behavioral Contingencies
The Law of Effect
Penalty and Reinforcement
Penalty, Response Cost, and Time-out
Reversal Designs
Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment)
Extinction Following Reinforcement
Extinction Bursts and Spontaneous Recovery
Extinction Following Reinforcement vs. Penalty Contingencies (Response Cost and Time-out)
Recovery from Punishment
Extinction vs. Satiation
Extinction and Recovery
Extinction after Reinforcement
Extinction after Escape Training
The Moral Necessity to Evaluate Interventions
Recovery From Punishment vs. Spontaneous Recovery From Extinction
Confounded Variables
Control Condition
Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA)
Task Analysis
Response Dimensions
Response Classes
The Differential-Reinforcement Procedure
Differential Reinforcement vs. Reinforcement
Differential Punishment
Frequency Graphs
Control Group
Shaping
Shaping with Reinforcement
Differential-Reinforcement vs. Shaping with Reinforcement
Shaping with Punishment
Variable-Outcome Shaping
Fixed-Outcome Shaping vs. Variable-Outcome Shaping
Shaping vs. Getting in Shape
Shaping vs. Behavioral Chaining
Motivation
Unlearned Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation
Unlearned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli
Deprivation and Satiation
The Effectiveness of Reinforcement Contingencies
The Effectiveness of Penalty Contingencies
Motivating Operations
The Reflexive Motivating Operation
The Nature of the Reinforcer or Aversive Stimulus
The Premack Principle
The Theory of Direct and Indirect Biological Relevance
Special Motivating Operations
Aggression
Pain-Motivated Aggression
Extinction-Motivated Aggression
Subtle Aggression
Drug Addiction
Addictive Reinforcers
A Behavior-Analytic Theory of Aggression
Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers)
How are Learned Reinforcers Learned?
Token Economy
Learned Aversive Stimuli
Extinction vs. the Unlearning of Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli
Conditional Stimulus
Learned Reinforcers and Learning Language
Hedonic and Instrumental Learned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli
Proof of a Learned Reinforcer
Determining the Effectiveness of Tokens as Reinforcers
Stimulus Control
Discrimination
Discrimination Training Based on Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement)
Discrimination Training Based on Escape (Negative Reinforcement)
Discrimination Training Based on Punishment (Positive Punishment)
Reinforcement-Based Discriminative Stimuli vs. Punishment-Based Discriminative Stimuli
The Differential Reinforcement Procedure vs. The Stimulus-Discrimination Procedure
Differential-Punishment and Stimulus-Discrimination Procedures Using Punishment
Transfer of Training
Verbal Behavior (A.K.A. Language)
Prompts
Requirements for Effective Discrimination Training
Discriminative Stimulus vs. Before Condition
Discriminative Stimulus vs. Operandum
Discriminative Stimulus vs. Nondiscriminated Reinforcement Contingency
Complex Stimulus Control
Stimulus Class, Stimulus Generalization, and Concept Training
Conceptual Control and Other Concepts
Discrimination vs. Generalization
Stimulus Dimensions and Fading
Response Shaping, Stimulus Fading, and Reinforcer Reduction
Stimulus-Generalization Gradients
Training with Intermittent Reinforcement
Testing in Extinction
Amount of Generalization vs. Amount of Discrimination
Science and Objectivity
Matching to Sample
Stimulus Equivalence
Equivalence Class vs. Stimulus Class
Imitation
Establishing Imitation
Generalized Imitation
Added vs. Built-in Contingencies for Imitation
The Importance of Imitation
How Do You Know if it's Really Imitation?
Imitation as a Prerequisite to Learning Language
An Adequate Control Condition to Show Reinforcement
Complex Behavioral Contingencies
Avoidance
Avoidance Contingency
Avoidance of an Aversive Condition
Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency
Escape vs. Avoidance
Cued Avoidance
Continuous-Response Avoidance
Noncued Avoidance
Avoidance of the Loss of a Reinforcer
Avoidance of an Aversive Condition vs. Punishment By the Presentation of an Aversive Condition
Differential Punishment vs. Differential Avoidance
Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer
Warning Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus
Cued Avoidance and Conditional Aversive Stimuli
Teleology
Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO)
Punishment-by-Prevention-of-Removal Contingencies
Punishment-by Prevention-of-a-Reinforcer Contingencies
Prevention of the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Removal of a Reinforcer
The Four Basic Behavioral Contingencies and Their Prevention
Punishment by Prevention vs. Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO)
Ratio Schedules
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
The Cumulative Graph
Variable-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio Schedules of Escape and Penalty
Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement and Punishment in Everyday life
Discrete-Trial Procedures vs. Free-Operant Procedures
Interval Schedules
Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
Superstition in the Pigeon
Fixed-Time Schedules and Superstitious Behavior
Variable-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
Extinction and Schedules of Reinforcement
Interval Schedules vs. Time Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio and Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
The Relation Between Rate of Responding and Rate of Reinforcement
Intermittent Reinforcement and Resistance to Extinction
Resistance to Extinction vs. Response Strength
Concurrent Contingencies
Concurrent Contingencies
Four Types of Concurrent Contingencies
Concurrent Contingencies and the Factors that Interfere with Language Learning
Biological Problems that Interfere with Language Learning
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior vs. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
Symptom Substitution
Concurrent Contingencies of Reinforcement for Physically Incompatible Responses
Intervention (Treatment) Package
Concurrent Contingencies and the Matching Law
Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate
Behavioral Chains
Dual-Functioning Chained Stimuli
Forward Chaining
Total-Task Presentation
Backward Chaining
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL)
Ways to Reduce or Eliminate Undesirable Behavior
The Motivating Operation
Nonchained Behavioral Sequences
DRL vs. FI
Respondent Conditioning
Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts
Ivan Pavlov
Respondent Conditioning
Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning
Respondent vs. Operant Pairing
Conditioning a Phobia
Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning
Respondent Extinction vs. Operant Extinction
Operant Treatment of Phobias
Systematic Desensitization
Respondent Conditioning of the Immune System
Stimulus Generalization in Respondent Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus
Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications
Feedback vs. Praise
Information Alone Does Not Reliably Influence Behavior
Multiple Baselines
Reinforcement of Covert Behavior vs. Rule-Governed Behavior
The Shift from Rule Control to Contingency Control
The Reinforceable Response Unit
Why Analogs to Avoidance are not Direct-Acting Contingencies
Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory
How Do Rules Govern Our Behavior
Rule Statements as Verbal (Analog) Pairing Procedures
The Myth of the Cause of Poor Self-Management
The Small, But Cumulative, Outcomes
The Improbable Outcomes
The Truth About the Causes of Poor Self-Management
What's Wrong With Small But Cumulatively Significant and Improbable Outcomes
Why Do We Miss Deadlines
The Secret of Performance Management
The Ineffective Natural Contingency
Effective Indirect-Acting Performance-Management Contingencies
An Analysis of Procrastination
An Interaction between the Probability and the Significance of the Outcome
Can We Build a World Free of Aversive Control
Pay for Performance
Direct-Acting or Indirect-Acting Contingency
Why is this Rule-Governed Behavior
The Ever-Present Deadline
Analog to Reinforcement or Avoidance
The Rule Statement as a Verbal Analog to a Pairing Procedure
What Should You Do When Performance is Poor
The Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management
Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com)
Sexuality
I'm a Woman Trapped in a Man's Body
A Man's Moves
Transsexuality
Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning
Respondent Extinction and Operant Extinction
Transgenderism: A Case Study of Moral and Legal Control
Is the Behavior that Produces Sexual Reinforcers Learned or Innate?
Is Gender Behavior Learned or Innate?
Is the Reinforcing Value of Sexual Stimulation Learned or Unlearned (Innate)?
Is the Reinforcing And Punishing Value Of Different Sources Of Sexual Stimulation Learned Or Innate?
Other Data Suggesting Our Innate Sexual Flexibility
If Sexual Orientation Is Not Innate, Is It Chosen?
Evidence for Biological Determinism
Is Homophobia Learned or Innate?
Sexuality Definitions
To Intervene Or Not To Intervene
Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com)
Goal-Directed Systems Design
Contingencies for the Good Life
Five Philosophical Views Of Psychology
Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space
Maintenance
The Myth of Perpetual Behavior and the Myth of Intermittent Reinforcement
Setting a Behavior Trap to Maintain Performance
Use Intermittent Contingencies to Maintain Performance
Maintain the Contingencies and You'll Maintain Performance
Perpetual-Performance Contracting
What to Do after the Performance Manager Goes Home or after the Doctoral Student Finishes the Dissertation
Transfer
Transfer of Training
Reduce Stimulus Control and Increase Transfer
Stimulus Generalization is Not Enough
Could Rule-Governed Behavior Support Transfer of Training
Modification of a Child's Multiple Behavior Problems
Rule-Governed Behavior in the Classroom
Training Jimmy to Self-Instruct
Training for Transfer of Training
Training for Covert Self-Instruction
Overall Summary of Maintenance and Transfer
Intervention Packages
Research Methods
Research Methods
Why Should We Do Behavior Analysis?
Save the World with Behavior Analysis
Understand the World with Behavior Analysis
How Should We Do Behavior Analysis?
How to Do a Functional Assessment
Should We Do Functional Assessment?
How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Preliminaries)
Social Validity
Obtrusive and Unobtrusive Observation
Units of Measurement
Interobserver Agreement
Objectivity vs. Subjectivity in Technology
How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Research Design)
Case Study
Simple Baseline Design
Reversal Design
Multiple-Baseline Design
Changing-Criterion Design
Alternating-Treatments Design
Generality of Results
Ethics
Jobs and Grad School
Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com)
Where Should I Go From Here?
Where Should I NOT Go From Here?
How Do I Find the Right Grad Programs?
What Are Some Good MA and PhD Programs?
What Are Some Good MA Programs?
ABA Approved Programs
What Are Some Good International Programs?
What Degree Should I Get--BA, MA, EdS, MSW, or PhD?
MA Jobs
Where Can I Find a Job?
How Do I Get Into Grad School?
What Do I Do About a Low GRE?
The Timetable
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