Exploring Biological Anthropology The Essentials

ISBN-10: 0205705405
ISBN-13: 9780205705405
Edition: 2nd 2010
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Description: Exploring Biological Anthropology,2/e, is a core concepts version of the successful text,Biological Anthropology,2/e.It provides students with a strong foundation in biological anthropology without some of the extended examples found in the original  More...

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Book details

List price: $138.80
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 2/24/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

Exploring Biological Anthropology,2/e, is a core concepts version of the successful text,Biological Anthropology,2/e.It provides students with a strong foundation in biological anthropology without some of the extended examples found in the original text. Exploring Biological Anthropology,2/e, offers concise coverage of core material, while maintaining thorough coverage of traditionally important topics.

Craig B. Stanford is Professor of Biological Sciences and Anthropology and Co-Director of the Jane Goodall Research Center at the University of Southern California.

Craig Stanfordis a professor of anthropology and biological sciences at the University of Southern California, where he also directs the Jane Goodall Research Center and chairs the Department of Anthropology. He has conducted field research on primate behavior in south Asia, Latin America, and East Africa. He is well known for his long-term studies of meat-eating among wild chimpanzees in Gombe, Tanzania, and of the relationship between mountain gorillas and chimpanzees in the Impenetrable Forest of Uganda. He has authored or coauthored more than 100 scientific publications. Craig has received USCrsquo;s highest teaching awards for his introductoryBiological Anthropologycourse. In addition, he has published seven books on primate behavior and human origins, includingSignificant Others(2001) andUpright(2003). He and his wife, Erin Moore, a cultural anthropologist at USC, live in South Pasadena, California, and have three children. nbsp; John Allenis a research scientist and adjunct associate professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine. Previously, he was a faculty member in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, for several years. His primary research interests are the evolution of the human brain and behavior, and behavioral disease. He also has research experience in molecular genetics, nutritional anthropology, and the history of anthropology. He has conducted fieldwork in Japan, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Palau. He has received university awards for teaching introductory courses in biological anthropology both as a graduate student instructor at the University of California and as a faculty member at the University of Auckland. John and his wife, Stephanie Sheffield, have two sons, Reid and Perry (the Berry). nbsp; Susan Antoacute;nis an associate professor in the Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology at New York University, where she also directs the M.A. program in Human Skeletal Biology. Her field research concerns the evolution of genusHomoin Indonesia and human impact on island ecosystems in the South Pacific. She is best known for her work onH. erectusand dispersal. She is joint editor of theJournal of Human Evolution. She received awards for teaching as a graduate student instructor at the University of California and was Teacher of the Year at the University of Florida. She has been twice elected toWhorsquo;s Who Among Americarsquo;s Teachers. Susan and her husband, Carl Swisher, a geochronologist, raise Anatolian shepherd dogs.

Preface
About the Authors
Foundations
Introduction: What Is Biological Anthropology?
Anthropology and Its Other Subfields
Foundation: The Subfields of Anthropology
The Scope of Biological Anthropology
Paleoanthropology
Skeletal Biology and Human Osteology
Paleopathology and Bioarchaeology
Forensic Anthropology
Primatology
Human Biology
The Roots of Modern Biological Anthropology
Visual Summary
Origins of Evolutionary Thought
What Is Science?
The Early Thinkers
The Roots of Modern Science
Linnaeus and the Natural Scheme of Life
The Road to the Darwinian Revolution
The Uniformitarians: Hutton and Lyell
The Darwinian Revolution
The Gal�pagos
Refining the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Darwin versus Wallace?
The Science and Creationism Question
What Is Intelligent Design?
Visual Summary
Mechanisms of Evolution
Genetics: Cells and Molecules
The Study of Genetics
Cloning Controversies
The Cell
Cell Anatomy
DNA Structure and Function
DNA Structure I: The Molecular Level
DNA Function I: Replication
DNA Function II: Protein Synthesis
DNA Structure II: Chromosomes and Cell Division
Molecular Tools for Bioanthropological Research
Indirect and Direct Research Methods
PCR, Mitochondrial DNA, and Ancient DNA
Innovations: DNA Barcoding
Visual Summary
Genetics: From Genotype to Phenotype
From Genotype to Phenotype
The ABO Blood Type System
Obesity: A Complex Interaction
Mendelian Genetics
Mendel's Postulates
Linkage and Crossing Over
Mutation
Point Mutation and Sickle Cell Disease
Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases
Mutations: Bad, Neutral, and Good
X-Linked Disorders
Mendelian Genetics in Humans
Genetics beyond Mendel
State Fair Mendelism and the Eugenics Movement
Polygenic Traits, the Phenotype, and the Environment
Innovations: A New Genetic Era
Heritability and IQ Test Score Performance
Phenylketonuria: Illustrating Mendelian and Post-Mendelian Concepts
Genes and Environments
Visual Summary
The Forces of Evolution and the Formation of Species
How Evolution Works
Where Does Variation Come From?
How Natural Selection Works
Other Evolutionary Processes
Classification and Evolution
Taxonomy and Speciation
What Is a Species?
Species Concepts
What's in a Name? Species Concepts, Genetics, and Conservation
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
How Species Are Formed
The Tempo of Speciation
Adaptation
Is Everything Adaptive?
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Levels of Selection
Inclusive Fitness
Visual Summary
Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability
Human Variation at the Individual and Group Levels
What Is a Population?
Historical Perspectives on Human Variation
Recording Human Variation in Past Civilizations
The Monogenism-Polygenism Debate
Race and Racism in the Twentieth Century
Changing Attitudes Toward Race in Anthropology
Deconstructing Racial Features
Population Genetics
Polymorphisms: ABO and Other Blood Type Systems
Gene Flow and Protein Polymorphisms
Polymorphisms and Phylogenetic Studies
Polymorphisms and Natural Selection in Human Populations
The Evolution of Lactose Tolerance
Balanced Polymorphisms: Sickle Cell and Other Conditions
Adaptation and Adaptability
Levels of Adaptability
Technology and Extreme Environments
Heat and Cold
Body Size and Shape
Living at High Altitude
Skin Color
Visual Summary
Primates
The Primates
The Primate Radiation
The Extraordinary Diversity of Nonhuman Primates
What Exactly Is a Primate?
Anatomical Traits
Life History Traits
Behavioral Traits
A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates
The Strepsirhines
The Haplorhines
The Rarest of the Rare
The New World Monkeys
The Old World Monkeys
The Hominoids
The Impending Extinction of the Great Apes?
Primate Ecology
Diet
You Are What You Eat: Dietary and Digestive Strategies
Diet and Feeding Competition
Primate Communities
Visual Summary
Primate Behavior
Studying Primates
The Evolution of Primate Social Behavior
Social Behavior and Reproductive Asymmetry
Male Reproductive Strategies
Female Reproductive Strategies
Why Are Nonhuman Primates Social?
The Paradox of Sociality
Innovations: Culture in Nonhuman Primates
Types of Nonhuman Primate Societies
The Infanticide Wars
Are Chimpanzees from Mars and Bonobos from Venus?
Visual Summary
The Fossil Record
Geology and Primate Origins
How to Become a Fossil
The Importance of Context
Stratigraphy
The Geologic Time Scale
How Old Is It?
Relative Dating Techniques
Calibrated Relative Dating Techniques
The Piltdown Hoax
Chronometric Dating Techniques
Innovations: Time in a Bottle
The Earth in the Cenozoic
Continents and Landmasses
The Environment in the Cenozoic
Climate Change and Early Primate Evolution
Changes in the Paleocene: The Origin of Primates
Why Primates?
Early Primates of the Eocene
Selective Pressures Driving the Strepsirhine-Haplorhine Split
Climate Change and the Origin of Monkeys and Apes
The First Monkeys
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
What Favored the Origin of Anthropoids?
The Earliest Apes
Selection Pressures and the Divergence of Monkeys and Apes
The Monkey's Tale: Primate Diversity in the Miocene
Molecular Evolution in Primates
A Primate Molecular Phylogeny
Visual Summary
Early Hominids and Australopithecus
Becoming a Biped
Anatomical Changes
Constructing the Bipedal Body Plan
Why Bipeds?
The Transition to Human Behavior
What Made Humans Human?
Will You Know a Hominid When You See One?
A Rose by Any Other Name: Hominids versus Hominins
The First Hominids?
Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7.0-6.0 mya)
Orrorin tugenensis (6.0 mya)
Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya) and Ardipithecus kadabba (5.8-5.2 mya)
Australopithecus and Kin
Australopithecus anamensis (4.2-3.9 mya)
Australopithecus afarensis (3.9-2.9 mya)
East and West African Hominids from 3.5 to 2.5 mya
Australopithecus africanus (3.5-2.0 mya)
The Robust Australopithecines (or Paranthropines)
Innovations: Dikika and Development
Understanding the Australopithecine Radiation
Cohabitation
Tools and Intelligence
Ancestors and Descendants
Visual Summary
Rise of the Genus Homo
Climate and the Evolution of Homo in the Pliocene and Pleistocene
Defining the Genus Homo
Earliest Genus Homo
Early Tool Use
Hunting and Scavenging
Who Was Homo erectus?
Anatomical Features
Innovations: What's Size Got to Do with It?
Homo erectus versus Homo ergaster
Homo erectus around the World
African Origins
The First African Diaspora: Republic of Georgia
Dispersal into East Asia
The Status of Homo erectus in Europe
The Lifeways of Homo erectus
Homo erectus and the Early Stone Age
A Higher-Quality Diet: Homo erectus Subsistence
Homo erectus Life History
Homo erectus Leaves Africa
Visual Summary
Archaic Homo sapiens and Neandertals
Hominid Evolution in the Mid- to Late Pleistocene
Defining Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
Archaic Homo sapiens
European Archaic Homo sapiens
African Archaic Homo sapiens
Asian Archaic Homo sapiens
Behavior of Archaic Homo sapiens
Stone Tools
Tools from Organic Materials
Big-Game Hunting
Fire, Campsites, and Home Sites
The Neandertals
Geographic and Temporal Distribution
History of Neandertal Discovery
Neandertal Image Makeovers
Neandertal Anatomy and DNA: Built for the Cold
Growing up Neandertal
Health and Disease
Innovations: Neandertal Genes
Neandertal Behavior
Material Culture
Coping with Cold
Hunting, Subsistence, and Cannibalism
Burials
Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Issues: An Overview
Visual Summary
The Origin, Dispersal, and Bioarchaeology of Homo sapiens
The Emergence of Modern Humans
Models of Modern Human Origins
Replacement and Multiregional Models
Predictions of the Two Models
Anatomy and Distribution of Early Humans
Africa
Near East
Europe
Asia and Southeast Asia
Australia
Archaeology of Modern Human Origins
The Little People of Flores
Stone and Other Tools
Subsistence
Symbolism, Burial, and Art
Molecular Genetics and Human Origins
Mitochondrial DNA
The Y Chromosome
MRCAs for Nuclear Genes
Ancient DNA
Interpreting Models of Human Origins
Paleontology and Archaeology
Molecular Genetics
Bioarchaeology after the Origin of Modern Humans
Settlement of the New World and Pacific Islands
Biological Changes at the Origins of Agriculture and Shifts to Sedentism
Physical and Cultural Consequences of Colonization
Visual Summary
Biology and Behavior of Modern Humans
Evolution of Brain and Behavior
Overview of the Brain
Issues in Hominid Brain Evolution
Humans Have "Large" Brains
Brain Size and the Fossil Record
Brain Reorganization
The Ten-Percent Myth: Evolution and Energy
Language: Biology and Evolution
Language in the Brain
Language in the Throat
Language Ability and the Fossil Record
Innovations: Music, the Brain, and Evolution
Scenarios of Language Evolution
The Evolution of Human Behavior
The Evolution of Human Behavior: Four Approaches
Traditional Lives in Evolutionary Ecological Perspective
Wealth, Reproductive Success, and Survival
Physiology and Ecology
Hunting, Gathering, and the Sexual Division of Labor
Sexual Selection and Human Behavior
Risk-Taking Behavior
Inbreeding Avoidance and Incest Taboos
Visual Summary
Biomedical and Forensic Anthropology
Biomedical Anthropology and the Biocultural Perspective
Birth, Growth, and Aging
Human Childbirth
Patterns of Human Growth
Stages of Human Growth
The Secular Trend in Growth
Menarche and Menopause
Aging
Infectious Disease and Biocultural Evolution
Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Disease
Infectious Disease and the Evolutionary Arms Race
Diet and Disease
The Paleolithic Diet
Agriculture and Nutritional Deficiency
Agriculture and Abundance: Thrifty and Nonthrifty Genotypes
Forensic Anthropology, Life, Death, and the Skeleton
Field Recovery and Laboratory Processing
The Biological Profile
Age at Death
Sex
Ancestry
Height and Weight
Innovations: Ancestry Genetics
Premortem Injury and Disease
Perimortem and Postmortem Trauma
Identification and Forensic Anthropology
Time Since Death
Antemortem Records, Facial Reconstruction, and Positive IDs
Applications of Forensic Anthropology
Mass Fatalities
War Dead
War Crimes and Genocide
Epilogue
Visual Summary
Primate and Human Comparative Anatomy
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Metric-Imperial Conversions
Glossary
Bibliography
Credits
Index

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