Doing Qualitative Research Designs, Methods, and Techniques

ISBN-10: 0205695930

ISBN-13: 9780205695935

Edition: 2012 (Revised)

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Book details

List price: $57.99
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Pearson Education, Limited
Publication date: 2/21/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 3.036
Language: English

Preface
Getting Started.�Thinking about Research Choices
Introduction: Logic of Inquiry, Research Designs and Strategies, and the Methods Tool-Kit
Overview
Guiding Principles
The Book's Organization
Getting Started�Thinking about Research Choices
Choosing a Research Design
Focus on Ethnography
Choices from the Methods Tool-Kit
Telling the Story
Key Concepts
An Example: Studying the Unhoused
Quantitative versus Qualitative Research
Unobtrusive and "Obtrusive" (or Interactive) Research
Fieldwork
Understanding the Experiences of Others
Exercises
Key Terms
A Brief History Of Qualitative Research
Overview
Classical Ideas
Max Weber
Verstehen�Understanding
The Historical-Comparative Method
The Construction of "Ideal-Types"
The Chicago School and its Legacy
Spatial Mapping and Spatial Analysis
The Life History Method
Analysis of Documents
Observations and Descriptions of Neighborhood Life
Occupational Studies
Ethnographic Research in Anthropology
Anthropologists of the Early 1900s
Sociology and Anthropology: An Often Uneasy Union
The Frankfurt Institute
Street Corner Society: Paragon of Early Qualitative Research
Critical Community Studies
The Rise of Microsociologies and the Great Surge in Qualitative Research
Foundational Concepts of Early Qualitative Research
The Common Denominator: Get Out of the Office and into the Mix of Real Life!
Principles of the New Qualitative Methodology
Ethnomethodologists and "Breaching" Experiments
The Birth of a Contentious Divide
Feminist and Postmodernist Approaches: New Directions at the End of the Twentieth Century
Feminist Research Strategies
Postmodernism in Qualitative Research
Toward More Comprehensive Orientations
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Asking Research Questions
Overview
Introduction: What is a Research Question?
What Does a Research Question Produce?
The Sociologist's Way
The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method: A Set of Rules Guiding Procedures, Presentation of Evidence, and Storytelling
Principles of the Scientific Method
Framing Research Questions
Learning the Language: Qualitative Research Vernacular
Doubts and Concerns: Are We Being Too Scientific?
Choosing Research Activities
Where do Research Questions Come From?
Studying a Tattoo Parlor: Using the Scientific Method
Qualitative Research Principles in Action: Paul Willis, Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs
Tips for Formulating a Research Question
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
The Ethics 0f Qualitative Research
Overview
A Mental Exercise in Role-Taking
You're a Survey "Respondent"
You're an "Informant" Neighbor
Ethical Conduct in Qualitative Research
Qualitative Research as a "Complicated Relationship"
The Question of Meaning
Rules on the Books versus Rules in Action
Formal Safeguards: Human Subjects Research, the Irb, and Professional Codes of Ethics
To Obey or Not to Obey: "The Milgram Study"
"Prisoner 819 Did a Bad Thing": The Stanford Prison Experiment
The Spy Who Didn't Love Me: Laud Humphreys' Tea Room Trade
Institutional Review Boards
Beyond Formal Codes of Ethics
Informed Consent
The (Hollow) Right to Withdraw
Informed Consent Is a Process, Not a Document
Some Suggestions for Resolving the Tension between Law on the Books and Law in Action
Deception
"Instrumentalization" of Relationships
Give in Order to Take. . . and Take More
Caveat: The Subject is Not a Dishrag
The "Gaze"
Revealing Subjects'Ignorance
Caveat: "Studying Up" versus "Studying Down"�The Patterning of Ethical Issues
Looking Ahead at Ethics
Exercises
Key Terms
The Politics of Qualitative Research
Overview
Research and Politics: Together But Mostly Apart
Limiting Personal Bias by Exposing It: Embracing Transparency and Falsifiability
Research as a Means for Championing Rights: Social Justice and Social Science
Politicizing Research Without Compromising Science
Clusters of Values: Truth, Sociological Imagination, and Social Justice
Politically Engaged Science: Different Strokes for Different Folks
Political Engagement in Theory and Interpretation
Mounting a Critique of Existing Concepts and Constructing Alternative Concepts that more Accurately capture Social Realities
Dissecting Misrecognition
Controversy over Context
Engaging in Public Discussion
Combating Stereotypes
Exposing Misrecognition and Debunking Stereotypes
The Dangers of Trying a Little Politically Motivated Tenderness
Critical Examination of the State of Social Services and Government Policies
Identifying Inequalities in Service Delivery
Critique of Organizational Practices
Studying the Rich and Powerful
Activism: From Spokesperson to CBPR
Realistic Ways for Sociologists to Assist Straggling Communities
The Critical Analysis of Research Methods
The Politics of Researching Research: A Critique of Respondent-Driven Sampling
Case Study
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Integrating Theory Into Qualitative Research: Foundational, Grounded, and Critical-Reflexive Theories
Overview
The Meaning of "Theory": What it is, What it Isn't
Foundational Theory
Grounded Theory
Critical-Reflexive Theory
Foundational Theory in Action: Research Illustrations
Foundational Theory in Action
Evaluating Foundational Theories in Action
Connecting Theory with Research Design and Methods
When Does Theory Begin? Before the Beginning
Foundational Theories and the Problematic of a Research Project
Grounded Theory in Action: Research Illustrations
To See the World in a Grain of Sand
Key Elements of Grounded Theory
But is Grounded Theory Really Built from the Ground Up?
The "Always Already" Contradiction of Grounded Theory
Critical-Reflexive Theory in Action
Getting Back to "Bias"�Simply but Not Simplistically
The Theory-Research "Dialogue"
Moving Ahead With Theory: A Practical Guide for Overcoming the Abstraction Paralysis
Levels of Analysis
Research and Theory: A Continuous Conversation
How Much Theory?
From Empirical Observation to Reflexive Theorizing: Four Steps for Getting Started
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
Exercises
Key Terms
Choosing a Research Design
Ethnography: A Synopsis
Overview
An Example�In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio
An Exampk�Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street
Ethnography in Everyday Life
Professional Strangeness
Solving Puzzles in Reverse
Ethnography: A Logic of Knowing
The Culture Question: "How?"
Culture as Process and Structure in Context
Depth versus Breadth
Falsification
Questioning Reality
Parsimony and Ockham's Razor
The World in a Grain of Sand
Ethnography Holds Up a Mirror
Ethnography and Journalism
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Historical-Comparative Research
Overview
History of Historical-Comparative Research
Exemplary Historical-Comparative Research Studies
Characteristics of Historical-Comparative Research
When and How to Use Historical-Comparative Analysis
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Social Autopsies: Adverse Events and What they Tell Us About Society
Overview
Contemporary Life and the Demand for Autopsies
Types of Events: Natural Disasters, Accidents, and Intentional Acts
Examples of Social Autopsies
The Design of Social Autopsies
Appropriate Types of Research Questions
The Logic of the Social Autopsy
Social Autopsies are Contentious
Against the "Conspiracy Theory"
Components of a Social Autopsy
Who Was Affected?
The Role of Organizations and Institutions
Evaluate the Public Representations of the Event
Putting it all Together: The Need for Multilevel Design
Theoretical Foundations
Related Types of Inquiries
Applications
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Community-Based Participatory Research or Participatory Action Research (With Krista Harper)
Overview
What is CBPR?
A Brief History (or Rather, "Herstory")
What is the Meaning of "Community?"
Problem-Solving? Whose Problems, Whose Solutions?
Par in Action: Environmental Justice in a Hungarian Village
Starting with Justice
Getting to Know the Roma
A Key Informant Emerges
Jointly Designing the Project
An Overview of CBPR as a Design Choice
Practical Tips
PAR as Method and Object of Teaching: Critical Perspectives
A Retelling of PAR's History
Revising the Definition of PAR
PAR and Pedagogy: The Politics of Teaching and Learning through CBPR
Beware the Backfire Effect: When CBPR Becomes the "Cure That Kills"
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
The Analysis of Cultural Objects and Discourses as a Research Design (With Martha Martinez and Christopher Carroll)
Overview
Why Conduct Cultural Objects Research?
Practical Reasons for Studying Cultural Objects
Theory-Driven Reasons for Studying Cultural Objects
Research in Action: Examples of Studying Cultural Objects
Entertainment
Advertising
Understanding the Religious Imaginary: Thank You, St. Jude!
Style
Architecture and Urban Design
Managers'Views of Workers: Developing a Research Design and Asking a Research Question
The Invisible Metropolis (by Christopher Carroll)
Analysis of High School Yearbooks
Content Analysis Exercise: Home Pages of Colleges and Universities
Summary: When and How Do We Use This Design?
Formulate the Research Questions and Think about Relevant Theories
Carefully Specify the Units of Analysis and Organize Your Sampling
Identify Key Variables to Record
Select Your Time Period(s)
Create a Data File
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Multimethod Designs
Overview
Mixing Methods: The Value of Triangulation
Reasons and Strategies For Bringing Methods Together
Using Qualitative Research to Understand Forces that Produce Patterns of Variable Relationships
Including Quantitative Analysis within an Overall Qualitative or Ethnographic Design
Using Quantitative Methods to Analyze Qualitative Materials
Using Qualitative Data to Contextualize Quantitative Data
Using Quantitative Tools in Comparative Research
Using Multimethod Research to Understand Contemporary Issues: The Example of Youth Crime and Homelessness
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Focus on Ethnography
Ethnography: Defining, Preparing For, and Entering the field
Overview
What is Ethnography?
The Field
Casting a Big Light with a Small Lampz
Getting Ready to Get Close: Planning for Ethnographic Work
Doing Your Homework: Background Research
Refiexivity Exercises: Placing Your Vague Preconceptions in a Vivid Foreground
Asking Questions and Planning to Seek Answers
Prepare for Your Role on a Stage Not Your Own
Reflecting on Reduction and Recognizing Your Blinders! A Preparatory Exercise
Thinking About Your Project: The Logic of Ethnographic Discovery
Mental Habits of Ethnographers
Sameness and Difference: Not the Same Difference
Generalizing from Your Sample of One: Culture X
Iterative Recursive Abduction
Speculation, Imagination, and Surprise
Maintaining the Capacity to Be Surprised
Entering the Field
New People
Knowing When to Keep Quiet
Conclusion
Key Terms
Types of Ethnographic Data
Overview
Review: Designing Research, Knowing the Data you Need
Types of Data
Behavior/Action
Words
Nonbehavioral Data
Objects and Styles
Events and Rituals
The Intangibles: Norms, Values, Standards, and Beliefs
People and Personas
Conclusion
Key Terms
Writing Ethnographic Field Notes (With Gerald R.Suttles)
Overview
The Significance of Field Notes
The Basics of Field Notes
Handling Time
Language and Terminology: The Key to Understanding Insider Views
Concreteness
Present Tense
Contemporaneity
Writing to Think, Thinking to Write: Writing as Thinking
From the Periphery to the Core: Lessons from a Student Ethnography of a Tattoo Parlor in Chicago, IL
Putting the Blinders Back On: Smartly This Time!
Digital Recording Technology
Integrity of Data
Logistics
Conclusion: Field Notes and Professional Standards
Exercises
Key Terms
Directed Strategies for Data-Making
Overview
Ethnography Essentials: A Brief Review
The Directed Strategies
When Should I Use Directed Strategies?
What Do Directed Strategies Produce?
Asking Questions
Processual Interviewing
Manualize
Free-Listing and Pile-Sorting
Sociometric Grid Mapping
Daily Diary
Ethnographic Shadowing
Informant Mapping: Individuals and Focus Groups
Systematic Social Observation (SSO)
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Choices from the Methods Tool-Kit
Observation, Participant-Observation, and Carnal Sociology
Overview
A Spectrum of Observation: Degrees of Separation
Unobtrusive Observation
"Obtrusive" Observation: A Range of Involvement
Carnal Participation and Observation
Choosing Carnal Sociology
The "Goodness of Fit" between Observer and Observed
Research Ethics and IRB Restrictions
Entry and Guides
Entry
The Guide, Key Informants, and Research Bargains
Recording Observation and Participation: Field Notes and Analytic Memos
Choices about Recording: Descriptive Notes
The Analytic Memo: A Device for Making Sense of Notes
Howard Becker's Tips for Improving Objectivity and Plausibility
Observable Indicators
Credibility of Informants
Volunteered and Spontaneous Sharing of Information versus Directed Information: A Clue to the Salience of Concerns
Noting the Frequency and Distribution of Phenomena
First Steps: Mapping Space, Identifying Icons, Recording Time
A Summary of Practical Tips
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Interviewing
Overview
Background and Orientations
Orientations toward Interviewing
The Postmodern View
Structured, Semi-Structured, and Unstructured Interviews
Interview Procedures and Practices
The Sympathetic Ear: An Example of Research in Action
Believing, Disbelieving and Disbelieving Belief
Elite Interviews
Asking Questions Informally and Interacting Effectively
The "10 Commandments of Informant Interviewing"
The Basics of Getting Informants to Engage in Revelatory Talk
A Final Word on the Subject: Observation Trumps Interviewing!
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Focus Groups (With Tracey Lewis-Elligan)
Overview
The Many Uses of an Unnatural Venue: Focus Group Basics
One Exception: The In Situ Focus Group
Gauging Appropriateness of the Method
Guidelines for Running a Focus Group
Research in Action: Examples of Focus Group-Based Studies
Case Example: Are African American girls joining the eating disorder mainstream?
High School Focus Groups
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Life Narratives
Overview
The Life Narrative: A Staple Item in the Qualitative Research Method Inventory
The Chicago School: Exemplary Life Narrative Studies
The Spontaneity Factor
Whose Life, Whose Narrative?
A Suitable Topic
A Suitable Life
Motivation
The Life History Interview
Levels of Data
Limitations of the Life History Interview
FormatsVary
Practical Guidance for Building the Life Narrative
Recording
The Transcript
Interpretation
Conclusion
CODA
Exercises
Key Terms
Visual Methods (With Thomas Fredericks)
Overview
The Centrality of "The Visual"
Having a Vision: The Beginning
The Image
Creator and Consumer: A Contested "Relationship"
Our Basic Assumptions about Imagery
A Brief History of Visual Methods in the Social Sciences
In the Beginning: Photography
Science Poo-Poos Pictures
Then Came Pictures in Motion... The Movies
Then Came the 1960s: Peace, Love, and Subjectivity
50 Years Later... and ... ?
(Critical) Visual Literacy
Visual Intelligence and Literacy
Visual Literacy and Sociology
How Sociologists Approach Visual Material and Methods
The Data are and Must Be Images
Implementing Visual Methods: Key Ideas
Straddling the Great Divide: The Image as an Objective-Subjective Matter
The Practice of Image-Making
Video (as) Documentation
Ethnographilm: A Particular Kind of Documentary Movie
The Heart of Ethnographilm Is Ethnography
Ethnographilm and Documentary Film: A Shared History
So What Exactly is an Ethnographilm?
Approaches You Can Take
Some Basic Rules of Ethnographilmmaking
Why Make an Ethnographilm?
Conclusion ... Actually, We've Only Just Begun
Exercises
Key Terms
Computer Software for Qualitative Data Analysis (With Sarah Korhonen and Rachel Lovell)
Overview
CADA
New Tricks for Old and Young Dogs
The Importance of Setting Reasonable Expectations
Introduction to CAQDAS
A Brief History of CAQDAS
Reduction: The Key to CAQDAS
Back to the Future: The Primacy of the Binary
Garbage in, Garbage Out�Revisited with an Addendum Regarding False Hope
The Magic Moment: Al Green or Alanis Morissette?
Remembering Meaning
Path Forward
The Contenders: NVivo Versus ATLAS.ti
A Note on Grounded Theory: Inductive and Deductive Approaches to Making Sense
Coded Chunks of Text: The Foundation of Qualitative Data Analysis
Inductive and Abductive Coding: Not Mutually Exclusive
Logic of NVivo and ATLAS.ti
Logic of NVivo
Logic of ATLAS.ti
The Trinity of Units: Analysis, Observation, and Manipulation
Specifics of the Program Software
Data Preparation
Working With Data
Coding
Additional Coding Procedures
Queries
Relations/Relationships
Eyeballing and Beyond: A Graphical View of Your Research
Conclusion
Key Terms
Telling the Story
The Research Report
Overview
The Canons of Form and the Canonical Research Report
Voice
Play it Straight
Or Play it Not So Straight
Writing Lit Reviews
Other Elements of the Research Report: Practical Tips
What Is Paraphrasing and Why is it Often a Problem?
Truth: The Big Onion
Truth and Objectivity
Understanding the Participants' Point of View
Distinguishing the Insider and the Outsider's Perspectives
Developing Thick Description
Considering Macro-Micro Linkages
Theory-Methods Linkages in the Research Report
Critical-reflexive sociology (Bourdieu, Wacquant, Burawoy)
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Wrapping It Up
Overview
Challenges Abound
Legal Complications
Holding Up the Mirror: Research Subjects See Themselves in Your Report�the Issue of Representation
Promises to Keep (and Some to Break): Sharing Findings
The Fading of Friendship
Post-Project Blues
Conclusion
Exercises
Key Terms
Bibliography
Index
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