World's Religions Worldviews and Contemporary Issues

ISBN-10: 0205675115
ISBN-13: 9780205675111
Edition: 3rd 2010
Authors: William A. Young
List price: $69.80
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Description: For courses in World Religions or Comparative Religions. This introduction to the world's religions provides an orientation to the study of religion; surveys the stages of development, worldviews, and current situations of the major world religions;  More...

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Book details

List price: $69.80
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/31/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.650
Language: English

For courses in World Religions or Comparative Religions. This introduction to the world's religions provides an orientation to the study of religion; surveys the stages of development, worldviews, and current situations of the major world religions; and discusses the ways these religions respond to contemporary ethical issues. It also presents a sampling of new religious movements and looks to the possible ways the world's religions may interact in the 21st century. Its distinctive ldquo;framework for understandingrdquo; religious worldviews allows students to compare and contrast the teachings of religions objectively.

Preface
Introduction
An Introduction to Religion and the Study of Religion
What Is Religion?
The Problem of Defining Religion
Adopting a Working Definition of Religion
Secular Religions?
Why Are People Religious?
Why So Many Religions?
Why Is the Study of Religion So Important in the Twenty-First Century?
What Is the Relationship Between Science and Religion?
How Might Religion Be Studied?
Evaluative Methods of Studying Religion
Descriptive Methods of Studying Religion
How Will We Study the World's Religions?
A Framework for Understanding and Comparing Religious Worldviews
Symbols, Myths, and Rituals
Looking Ahead: An overview of the Rest of the Text
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
The World's Religions-Histories and Worldviews
Indigenous Religions-Quest for Harmony
An Orientation to Indigenous Peoples and Their Religions
Problems in Studying Indigenous Religions
The Traditional Worldview of Indigenous Peoples
The Yoruba of West Africa
Introduction
Yoruba Religion: Harmony with the Orisa
The Oglala Lakota (Sioux) of the Great Plains of North America
Introduction
A Brief History of the Oglala Lakota
Oglala Lakota Religion: The Way of the Sacred Pipe
The Continuing Impact of Indigenous Religions in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Hinduism-Many Paths to the Summit
Introduction
An Orientation to South and Southeast Asia
Lands and Peoples
A Brief History of India
The Traditional South Asian Worldview
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
The Problem with the Name "Hinduism"
Religion of the Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilization
The Religion of the Vedas: The Rig-Veda and the Upanishads
Hindu Society: The Laws of Manu
The Epics: Ramayana and Mahabharata
Devotional Literature and Movements: The Puranas
Philosophical Literature and Movements: The Yoga School and Advaita Vedanta
Hindu Reform Movements and Reformers in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Independent India
The Hindu Worldview
Humanity: An Eternal Soul (Atman)
Problem: Trapped by Karma
Cause: Desire and Ignorance
End: Liberation (Moksha) from the Cycle of Rebirth
Means: The Paths of Action, Devotion, and Knowledge
Reality: Penetrating the Veil of Maya
Sacred: Many Gods and Beyond the Gods
Hinduism in the Twenty-First Century
Hinduism as a Global Religion
Hindu Nationalism in India
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Theravada Buddhism-The Middle Way
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Founder: Siddartha Gautama
Formation of the Order of Buddhist Monks and Nuns (Sangha)
The Spread of Buddhism Beyond India
The Pali Canon
The Three Major Branches of Buddhism
The Theravada Buddhist Worldview
Humanity: No Permanent Identity (Anatta) and Dependent Origination
Problem: The First Noble Truth-Life Is Suffering (Dukkha)
Cause: The Second Noble Truth-Suffering Is Caused by Craving (Tanha)
End: The Third Noble Truth-The Extinction of Craving (Nirvana)
Means: The Fourth Noble Truth-The Eightfold Path of the Middle Way
Reality: Impermanence (Anicca)
Sacred: Spiritual Atheism
Theravada Buddhism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Jainism-The Way of Noninjury
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Founder: Mahavira and the Tirthankaras
The Jain Community
Jain Texts: The Agamas
The Jain Worldview
Humanity: Eternal, Infinite Souls (Fivas)
Problem: Souls "Weighed Down" by Actions (Karma)
Cause: Activity
End: Becoming a Conqueror (Fina) and Well-Being
Means: Self-Denial and Noninjury (Abimsa)
Reality: A Dualism of Matter (Ajiva) and Spirit (Fiva)
Sacred: Spiritual Atheism
Jainism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Daoism-The Way of Nature
Introduction
An Orientation to East Asia
Lands and Peoples
A Brief History of China
The East Asian Worldview and Indigenous Religions
Daoism: The Way of Nature
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
The Worldview of Daoist Philosophy
Daoism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Confucianism-The Way of Virtue
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Founder: Master Kong (Confucius)
The Analects and Other Texts
Formation of the Confucian School, and Confucianism as State Teaching
Neo-Confucianism
Is Confucianism a Religion?
The Decline of Confucianism
The Confucian Worldview
Humanity: Social Relationships and Microcosm
Problem: Social Chaos
Cause: A Breakdown of Virtue
End: Leaders of Character (Fun-zi) and the Harmonious Society
Means: The Virtuous Life
Reality: Life-Giving, Relational, Harmonious
Sacred: Making the Dao Great
Confucianism and Other Religions in the People's Republic of China
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Mahayana Buddhism (The Great Vehicle) and Vajrayana Buddhism (The Thunderbolt Vehicle)
Introduction
A Brief History of Korea and Japan
Korea
Japan
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism in East Asia
The Spread of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism into East Asia
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist Texts of India
Mahayana, Vajrayana, and Theravada Buddhism Contrasted
The "Three Bodies" of the Buddha
Bodhisattvas
Sunyata ("Emptiness")
Major Mahayana Schools in East Asia
Pure Land: The Devotional School
Zen: The Meditation School
Nichiren: The Political School
Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Shinto-The Way of the Kami
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
The Origin and Meaning of "Shinto"
The Shinto Myth: Japan as the Land of the Kami
Popular Japanese Religion
Medieval Shinto: Theoretical Amalgamation with Buddhism
The Revival of Shinto
The Shinto Worldview
Humanity: The People of the Kami
Problem: Pollution
Cause: Lack of Reverence for the Kami
End: Purity and Harmony
Means: Shrines, Rituals, and Self-Cultivation
Reality: The Land of the Kami
Sacred: The Kami
Religion in Twenty-First-Century Japan and Korea
Japan
Korea
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Judaism-The Way of Torah
Introduction
An Orientation to the Middle East
Lands and Peoples
A Brief History
The Traditional Worldview
Judaism: The Way of Torah
What Is Judaism?
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
The Jewish Worldview
Judaism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Christianity-The Way of Jesus Christ
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Founder: Jesus of Nazareth
The New Testament and the Birth of Christianity
The Institutionalization and Spread of Christianity
Reform Movements in Christianity
Major Christian Movements
Other Developments
The Christian Worldview
Humanity: One in Christ
Problem: Separation from God
Cause: Original Sin
End: The Kingdom of God in Heaven and on Earth
Means: Grace, Faith, and the Sacraments
Reality: Creation and the Cosmic Christ
Sacred: One God, Three "Persons"
Christianity in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Islam-The Way of Submission to Allah
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Arabia in the Seventh Century C.E.
The Prophet Muhammad
The Holy Qur'an
The Spread of Islam and the Rise of Islamic Civilization
The Branches of Islam
Sufi: The Mystical Movement
The Revival of Islam
The Islamic Worldview
Humanity: From a Single Soul
Problem: Rejecting Allah's Guidance
Cause: Distraction
End: Paradise and the "House of Islam"
Means: A Life of Submission
Reality: The Signs of Allah
Sacred: There Is No God but Allah
Islam in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Sikhism-The Way of the Guru
Introduction
Stages of Development and Sacred Texts
Founder: Nanak
The Gurus After Nanak
Guru Adi Granth (The Granth Sahib)
The Resurgence of Sikhism in Modern India
The Sikh Worldview
Humanity: A Pearl in an Oyster
Problem: Living Apart from God
Cause: Egoism
End: Absorption in God
Means: Praise and Compassion
Reality: Penetrating the "Wall of Falsehood"
Sacred: The True Name
Sikhism in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
The New Religious Movements-Renewal and Innovation
Introduction
The Rapid Growth of New Religious Movements
Problems in Studying New Religious Movements
Preparing for the End: Apocalyptic New Religious Movements
Seventh-Day Adventism: Living in the Final Days
Branch Davidians: Unlocking the Seven Seals
Aum Shinrikyo: Teaching the Supreme Truth
Faith and Spirit: New Religious Movements of Healing and Awareness
Christian Science: Recovering Lost Healing
International Raelian Religion: Preparing for the Elohim
Jediism: Star Wars Religion
Reviving the Church: Christian New Religious Movements of Renewal
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons): Christ's Kingdom in America
The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (the Unification Church): Restoration of Original Harmony
Nature and Spirit: Earth-Based and Ecological New Religious Movements
Wicca: Renewing European Witchcraft
Deep Ecology: Ecological Egalitarianism
Liberation and Enlightenment: New Religious Movements with Asian Roots
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness: The Hare Krishnas
Falun Dafa (Falun Gong): Cultivating the Universal Life Energy
Soka Gakkai: The Society for Value Creation
African-American and Afro-Caribbean New Religious Movements
The Nation of Islam: The "Black Muslims"
The Ras Tafari Movement: The Black Messiah
Native American New Religious Movements
The Native American Church: Peyote Religion
Focusing on the Human and the Natural: Secular New Religious Movements
Secular Humanism: Humanity as Ultimate
Marxism: Toward a Classless Society
Satanism: Indulging Self
The Quest for Unity: Universalist New Religious Movements
The Baha'i Faith: Toward World Unity
Unitarian Universalist Association: The Unity of God
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
The World's Religions and Contemporary Ethical Issues
The Ecological and Economic Crises-Humans and Resources
The Ecological Crisis: Is the Balance of Life on Planet Earth in Jeopardy?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
The Economic Crisis: Why Hunger and Abject Poverty in a World of Plenty?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
War and Capital Punishment-Society and Violence
War: When, If Ever, Is War Justified?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Capital Punishment: When May the State Take a Criminal's Life?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Abortion and Euthanasia-Life and Death
Abortion: Right to Life or Right to Choose?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Euthanasia: A "Good Death" or "Playing God"?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Gender and Sexual Orientation-Roles and Identity
The Changing Roles of Women: Liberation or Confusion?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Homosexuality: Orientation, Preference, or Perversion?
The Nature of the Issue and the Role of Religion
Religious Responses
Chapter Summary
Important Terms and Phrases
Questions for Discussion and Reflection
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Conclusion
The Future of the World's Religions
How the World's Religions Will Relate to One Another: Three Possible Futures
Exclusivism
Inclusivism
Pluralism
The Search for Common Ground: The Ecological Crisis
The World's Religions after September 11, 2001
Important Terms and Phrases
Sources and Suggestions for Further Study
Glossary
Index

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