Elementary Statistics in Social Research

ISBN-10: 0205638007
ISBN-13: 9780205638000
Edition: 3rd 2011
List price: $145.20 Buy it from $45.19
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Description: This text provides a streamlined and accessible introduction to statistics for students in sociology, criminal justice, political science, social work, and other social sciences. This text offers an essential and accessible overview to the  More...

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Book details

List price: $145.20
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 2/15/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

This text provides a streamlined and accessible introduction to statistics for students in sociology, criminal justice, political science, social work, and other social sciences. This text offers an essential and accessible overview to the introduction to social statistics. Clearly written with detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures, this text provides clear and logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods of social research. Numerous end-of-chapter questions in every chapter reinforce key concepts to students.

Preface
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics
The Nature of Social Research
Why Test Hypotheses?
The Stages of Social Research
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research
The Functions of Statistics
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey
Description
Organizing the Data
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
Comparing Distributions
Proportions and Percentages
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
Cumulative Distributions
Dealing with Decimal Data
Flexible Class Intervals
Cross-Tabulations
Graphic Presentations
Summary
Questions and Problems
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode
The Median
The Mean
Taking One Step at a Time
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean
Summary
Questions and Problems
Measures of Variability
The Range
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
Comparing Measures of Variability
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data
From Description to Decision Making
Probability and the Normal Curve
Probability
Probability Distributions
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
The Area under the Normal Curve
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve
Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve
Summary
Questions and Problems
Samples and Populations
Random Sampling
Sampling Error
Sampling Distribution of Means
Standard Error of the Mean
Confidence Intervals
The t Distribution
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t
Estimating Proportions
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations
Decision Making
Testing Differences between Means
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
Levels of Significance
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
Testing the Difference between Means
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means
Comparing Dependent Samples
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samples
Two Sample Test of Proportions
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
Summary
Questions and Problems
Analysis of Variance
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
The Sum of Squares
A Research Illustration
Mean Square
The F Ratio
Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
Summary
Questions and Problems
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
One-Way Chi-Square Test
Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance
Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups
The Median Test
Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences
From Decision Making to Association
Correlation
Strength of Correlation
Direction of Correlation
Curvilinear Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
Summary
Questions and Problems
Regression Analysis
The Regression Model
Interpreting the Regression Line
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis
Summary
Questions and Problems
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 � 2 Table
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 � 2 Tables
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association
Applying Statistics
Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems
Research Situations
Research Solutions
Appendixes
Instructions for Using ABCalc
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
Tables
List of Formulas
Answers to Problems
Index

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