| |

| |

Preface | |

| |

| |

| |

Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | |

| |

| |

The Nature of Social Research | |

| |

| |

Why Test Hypotheses? | |

| |

| |

The Stages of Social Research | |

| |

| |

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | |

| |

| |

The Functions of Statistics | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | |

| |

| |

| |

Description | |

| |

| |

| |

Organizing the Data | |

| |

| |

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | |

| |

| |

Comparing Distributions | |

| |

| |

Proportions and Percentages | |

| |

| |

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | |

| |

| |

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | |

| |

| |

Cumulative Distributions | |

| |

| |

Dealing with Decimal Data | |

| |

| |

Flexible Class Intervals | |

| |

| |

Cross-Tabulations | |

| |

| |

Graphic Presentations | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Measures of Central Tendency | |

| |

| |

The Mode | |

| |

| |

The Median | |

| |

| |

The Mean | |

| |

| |

Taking One Step at a Time | |

| |

| |

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Measures of Variability | |

| |

| |

The Range | |

| |

| |

The Variance and the Standard Deviation | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation | |

| |

| |

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores | |

| |

| |

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | |

| |

| |

Comparing Measures of Variability | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | |

| |

| |

| |

From Description to Decision Making | |

| |

| |

| |

Probability and the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

Probability | |

| |

| |

Probability Distributions | |

| |

| |

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | |

| |

| |

Characteristics of the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

The Area under the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Samples and Populations | |

| |

| |

Random Sampling | |

| |

| |

Sampling Error | |

| |

| |

Sampling Distribution of Means | |

| |

| |

Standard Error of the Mean | |

| |

| |

Confidence Intervals | |

| |

| |

The t Distribution | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t | |

| |

| |

Estimating Proportions | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | |

| |

| |

| |

Decision Making | |

| |

| |

| |

Testing Differences between Means | |

| |

| |

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means | |

| |

| |

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means | |

| |

| |

Levels of Significance | |

| |

| |

Standard Error of the Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

Testing the Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

Comparing Dependent Samples | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samples | |

| |

| |

Two Sample Test of Proportions | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions | |

| |

| |

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Analysis of Variance | |

| |

| |

The Logic of Analysis of Variance | |

| |

| |

The Sum of Squares | |

| |

| |

A Research Illustration | |

| |

| |

Mean Square | |

| |

| |

The F Ratio | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance | |

| |

| |

Requirements for Using the F Ratio | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Nonparametric Tests of Significance | |

| |

| |

One-Way Chi-Square Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square | |

| |

| |

Two-Way Chi-Square Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups | |

| |

| |

The Median Test | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences | |

| |

| |

| |

From Decision Making to Association | |

| |

| |

| |

Correlation | |

| |

| |

Strength of Correlation | |

| |

| |

Direction of Correlation | |

| |

| |

Curvilinear Correlation | |

| |

| |

The Correlation Coefficient | |

| |

| |

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Regression Analysis | |

| |

| |

The Regression Model | |

| |

| |

Interpreting the Regression Line | |

| |

| |

Regression and Pearson's Correlation | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Nonparametric Measures of Correlation | |

| |

| |

Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | |

| |

| |

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | |

| |

| |

| |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | |

| |

| |

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 ï¿½ 2 Table | |

| |

| |

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 ï¿½ 2 Tables | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Questions and Problems | |

| |

| |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association | |

| |

| |

| |

Applying Statistics | |

| |

| |

| |

Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems | |

| |

| |

Research Situations | |

| |

| |

Research Solutions | |

| |

| |

Appendixes | |

| |

| |

| |

Instructions for Using ABCalc | |

| |

| |

| |

A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics | |

| |

| |

| |

Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

List of Formulas | |

| |

| |

Answers to Problems | |

| |

| |

Index | |