Educational Research Fundamentals for the Consumer

ISBN-10: 0205508308
ISBN-13: 9780205508303
Edition: 5th 2008
List price: $146.67
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Description: This book educates students to become intelligent consumers of educational research and introduces basic research principles to those who may eventually use research in their work. The book is designed to enable readers to become intelligent  More...

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Book details

List price: $146.67
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/26/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.716
Language: English

This book educates students to become intelligent consumers of educational research and introduces basic research principles to those who may eventually use research in their work. The book is designed to enable readers to become intelligent consumers of educational research and to introduce basic research principles to those who may eventually be involved in research in their work.Principles for conducting research and criteria for evaluating its overall credibility, understanding the intent of the researcher, the procedures, and the results -Instruction on how to analyze and evaluate research and judge the usefulness of the findings for educational practice.For anyone interested in educational research.

James H. McMillan is Professor and Chair of the Department of Foundations of Education at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, where he teaches educational research and assessment courses and directs the Research and Evaluation Track of the PhD in Education program. He is also Executive Director of the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium, a partnership of Virginia Commonwealth University and eight Richmond-area school divisions that conducts and disseminates applied research. His current research interests include classroom and large-scale formative assessment. He has recently published the fifth edition of Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction and edited Formative Classroom Assessment: Theory into Practice. He has authored three educational research methods textbooks and published numerous articles in journals, including the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Educational Psychology, Contemporary Educational Psychology, and Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice.

To the Instructor
To the Student
Introduction to Research in Education
Chapter Road Map
Why Research?
Sources of Knowledge
Personal Experience
Tradition
Authority
Research
Characteristics of Scientific Inquiry
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
Purpose of Scientific Inquiry
Principles of Scientific Inquiry
Applying Systematic Inquiry to Education
Types of Educational Research
Two Major Traditions of Research: Quantitative and Qualitative
Basic, Applied, Evaluation, and Action Research
Research Ethics
Educational Research Article Format
Title and Author(s)
Abstract
Introduction
Review of Literature
Specific Research Question or Hypothesis
Method and Design
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Anatomy of a Research Article
Study Questions
Research Problems, Variables, and Hypotheses
Chapter Road Map
Research Problems
Sources for Research Problems
Quantitative Research Problem Statements and Questions
Variables in Quantitative Research
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
Types of Variables
Specific Quantitative Research Problem Statements and Questions
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Research Problems
Hypotheses
Why Researchers Use Hypotheses
Types of Hypotheses
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Research Hypotheses
Qualitative Research Problem Statements and Questions
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research Problems
Study Questions
Locating and Reviewing Related Literature
Chapter Road Map
The Purpose of Reviewing Related Literature
Refining the Research Problem
Establishing the Conceptual or Theoretical Orientation
Developing Significance
Identifying Methodological Limitations
Identifying Contradictory Findings
Developing Research Hypotheses
Learning About New Information
Steps to Review Related Literature
Select a Topic and Key Terms
Identify Database and Access Software
Conduct Search
Identify the Source as Primary or Secondary
Summarize and Analyze Primary Source Information
Organize and Write the Review
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating the Review of Literature
Study Questions
Using the Internet for Educational Research
Chapter Road Map
Introduction to the Internet
Strengths and Weaknesses of Using the Internet for Educational Research
Organization of Information on the World Wide Web
Similarities Between Online and Print Research Techniques
Differences Between Online and Print Research Techniques
Elements of Website Organization
Internet Search Strategies
Subject Directories
Search Engines
Metasearch Engines
Blurring the Line Between Search Engine and Search Directory
Beyond Web Pages: Scholarly Communication Strategies
E-Mail
Newsgroups, E-Mail Discussion Groups, and Listservs
Conferencing and Telecommunications
Using Known Locations
Review of Education Websites
Federal Government
State Government
National Research Centers
Regional Educational Laboratories
Associations and Organizations
Online Journals, Reviews and Abstracts
Statistics
Associations and University Web Pages
Institute of Education Sciences
Consumer Tips: How to Cite Internet Resources in Your References
Consumer Tips: Evaluating Information on the Internet
Using Educational Research: Internet Search Samples
Study Questions
Participants, Subjects, and Sampling
Chapter Road Map
What Is a Participant, a Subject, and a Sample?
Types of Sampling Procedures for Quantitative Studies
Probability Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Types of Sampling Procedures for Qualitative Studies
Typical Case Sampling
Extreme Case Sampling
Maximum Variation Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Critical Case Sampling
How Participants and Sampling Affect Research
Knowledge of Sampling Procedures
Volunteer Samples
Sample Size
Subject Motivation
Sampling Bias
Response Variability
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Subjects Sections of Reports and Sampling Procedures
Study Questions
Foundations of Educational Measurement
Chapter Road Map
Introduction to Measurement
What Is Measurement?
What Is Evaluation?
What Is Assessment?
The Purpose of Measurement for Research
Scales of Measurement
Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurement
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Correlation
Validity of Measurement
What Is Validity?
Sources of Validity Evidence
Effect of Validity on Research
Reliability of Measurement
Types of Reliability
Effect of Reliability on Research
Study Questions
Types of Educational Measures
Chapter Road Map
Classifying Educational Measures
Tests
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Interpretations
Large-Scale Standardized Tests
Scores from Norm-Referenced Interpretations
Questionnaires
Personality Assessment
Attitude, Value, and Interest Questionnaires
Problems in Measuring Noncognitive Traits
Observations
Inference
Laboratory Observation
Structured Field Observations
Observer Effects
Interviews
Types of Interview Questions
Interviewer Effects
Locating and Evaluating Educational Measures
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Instrumentation
Study Questions
Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Designs
Chapter Road Map
The Purpose of Nonexperimental Research
Descriptive Studies
Characteristics of Descriptive Studies
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Descriptive Studies
Relationships in Nonexperimental Designs
Comparative Studies
Characteristics of Comparative Studies
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Studies
Correlational Studies
Characteristics of Correlational Studies
Prediction Studies
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Correlational Studies
Causal-Comparative and Ex Post Facto Studies
Causal-Comparative Designs
Ex Post Facto Studies
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Causal-Comparative and Ex Post Facto Studies
Using Surveys in Nonexperimental Research
Cross-Sectional Surveys
Longitudinal Surveys
Internet-Based Surveys
Anatomy of a Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Study
Study Questions
Experimental Research Designs
Chapter Road Map
Characteristics of Experimental Research
Experimental Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Types of Experimental Designs
Single-Group Posttest-Only Design
Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Nonequivalent-Groups Posttest-Only Design
Nonequivalent-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design
Randomized-to-Groups Posttest-Only Design
Randomized-to-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design
Factorial Designs
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Experimental Research
Single-Subject Designs
Characteristics of Single-Subject Research
Types of Single-Subject Designs
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Single-Subject Research
Anatomy of an Experimental Research Study
Study Questions
Understanding Statistical Inferences
Chapter Road Map
The Purpose and Nature of Inferential Statistics
Degree of Certainty
Estimating Errors in Sampling and Measurement
The Null Hypothesis
Beyond Significance Testing
Confidence Intervals
Effect Size
Interpreting Results of Specific Inferential Tests
The t Test
Simple Analysis of Variance
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Covariance
Multivariate Statistics
Chi-Square
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Inferential Statistics
Study Questions
Qualitative Research Designs and Analysis
Chapter Road Map
Introduction to Qualitative Research
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Natural Settings
Direct Data Collection
Rich Narrative Descriptions
Process Orientation
Inductive Data Analysis
Participant Perspectives
Emergent Research Design
Ethnographic Studies
Identifying and Entering the Research Site
Selecting Participants
Obtaining Data
Data Analysis and Interpretation
Case Studies
Research Problem Statement
Entering the Research Site
Selecting Participants
Obtaining Data
Data Analysis
Phenomenological Studies
Grounded Theory Studies
Credibility of Qualitative Research
Triangulation
Reliability
External Validity
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
Anatomy of a Qualitative Research Study
Study Questions
Mixed-Method and Action Research
Chapter Road Map
Introduction to Mixed-Method Research
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Mixed-Method Designs
When to Use Mixed-Method Designs
Types of Mixed-Method Designs
Characteristics and Procedural Considerations for Mixed-Method Designs
Steps in Conducting a Mixed-Method Study
Consumer Tips: Evaluating Mixed-Method Studies
Anatomy of a Mixed-Method Research Study
Action Research
What Is Action Research?
Benefits of Action Research
Conducting Action Research
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Action Research
Anatomy of an Action Research Study
Study Questions
Discussion and Conclusions
Chapter Road Map
Purpose and Nature of the Discussion
Interpretation of the Results
Interpretation Related to the Problem and/or Hypothesis
Interpretation Based on Theory
Interpretation Related to Methodology
Interpretation Based on Statistical Procedures
Interpretation Related to Previous Research
Conclusions
Limitations
Recommendations and Implications
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Discussion and Conclusion Sections
Study Questions
The Intelligent Consumer: Putting it All Together
Questions for Quantitative Studies
Questions for Qualitative Studies
Questions for Mixed-Method Studies
Examples of Research Articles
References
Credits
Index

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