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Elementary Statistics in Social Research The Essentials

ISBN-10: 020548493X
ISBN-13: 9780205484935
Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)
List price: $101.40
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Book details

List price: $101.40
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/11/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 7.25" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Jack Levin is the Irving and Betty Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology at Northeastern University, where he co-directs its Center on Violence and Conflict and teaches courses in the sociology of violence and hate. He has authored or co-authored 30 books, most recently Serial Killers and Sadistic Murderers-Up Close and Personal and The Violence of Hate. Levin has also published more than 100 articles in professional journals and books and more than 150 columns in major newspapers, such as The New York Times, The Sunday London Times, The Chicago Tribune, The Washington Post, and USA Today. In 2009, he received a major award from the American Sociological Association for his contributions to the public understanding of sociology. Also in 2009, he received the Apple Award from the New England Sociological Association for his contributions to teaching. Levin has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the National Organization of Hostage Negotiators, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

James Alan Fox is the Lipman Family Professor of Criminology, Law, and Public Policy at Northeastern University. He has written 18 books, including his newest, Violence and Security on Campus: From Preschool Through College. He has published dozens of journal and magazine articles, as well as hundreds of freelance columns in newspapers around the country, primarily in the areas of multiple murder, youth crime, school and campus violence, workplace violence, and capital punishment. He also writes an online column for the Boston Globe?s website. Fox often gives keynote talks and testimony before Congress and in court. He has briefed various leaders here and abroad, including President Clinton, Attorney General Reno, and Princess Anne of Great Britain. He has worked on criminal investigations surrounding serial and mass murder cases and served as a visiting fellow with the Bureau of Justice Statistics focusing on homicide patterns and trends. Finally, Fox was honored in 2007 by the Massachusetts Committee against the Death Penalty with the Hugo Adam Bedau Award for excellence in capital punishment scholarship and by Northeastern University with the 2008 Klein Lectureship.

Preface
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics
The Nature of Social Research
Why Test Hypotheses?
The Stages of Social Research
Using Series of Numbers To Do Social Research
The Functions of Statistics
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey
Description
Organizing the Data
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
Comparing Distributions
Proportions and Percentages
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
Cumulative Distributions
Dealing with Decimal Data
Flexible Class Intervals
Cross-Tabulations
Graphic Presentations
Summary
Questions and Problems
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode
The Median
The Mean
Taking One Step at a Time
Step-By-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
Summary
Questions and Problems
Measures of Variability
The Range
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
Step-By-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
Comparing Measures of Variability
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data
From Description to Decision Making
Probability and the Normal Curve
Probability
Probability Distributions
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
The Area under the Normal Curve
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
Step-By-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve
Summary
Questions and Problems
Samples and Populations
Random Sampling
Sampling Error
Sampling Distribution of Means
Standard Error of the Mean
Confidence Intervals
The t Distribution
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t
Estimating Proportions
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations
Decision Making
Testing Differences between Means
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
Levels of Significance
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
Testing the Difference between Means
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice
Two-Sample Test of Proportions
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
Summary
Questions and Problems
Analysis of Variance
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
The Sum of Squares
Mean Square
The F Ratio
Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
Summary
Questions and Problems
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
The Chi-Square Test
Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of Significance
Step-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test for Several Groups
The Median Test
Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences
From Decision Making to Association
Correlation
Strength of Correlation
Direction of Correlation
Curvilinear Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r
Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
Summary
Questions and Problems
Regression Analysis
The Regression Model
Interpreting the Regression Line
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis
Summary
Questions and Problems
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables
Summary
Questions and Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association
Applying Statistics
Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
Research Situations
Research Solutions
Appendixes
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
Working with Decimals
Dealing with Negative Numbers
The Summation Sign
Tables
List of Formulas
Answers to Selected Problems
Index

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