Death, Society, and Human Experience

ISBN-10: 0205482627
ISBN-13: 9780205482627
Edition: 9th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $104.60
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Book details

List price: $104.60
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/11/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 560
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

Bob Kastenbaumrsquo;sexploits as skating messenger apparently qualified him to become editor of two community newspapers, an eccentric career trajectory that somehow led to a graduate scholarship in philosophy and a Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Southern California (1959). He was most interested in fields of psychological study that barely existed at the time: lifespan development and aging, time perspective, creativity, and death and dying. Kastenbaum became part of an emerging cadre that overcame the prevailing neglect and resistance to these issues. He worked in varied settings as clinician, researcher, activist, hospital administrator, educator, and author. The innovative programs he introduced into a geriatric hospital and his article, ldquo;The Reluctant Therapistrdquo; have been credited with preparing the way for increased attention to the needs and potentials of vulnerable elders and terminally ill people.nbsp; With Dick Kalish, he foundedOmega, the first peer-reviewed journal focused on death-related issues.nbsp; Kastenbaum taught the first regularly-scheduled university course on death and dying and came up with the first textbook (Death,Society, & Human Experience, 1977). He also established the first university-based educational and research center on death and dying (Wayne State University, 1966).nbsp; His other books includeThe Psychology ofDeathnbsp;(1972, 1990, 2000);Dorian, Graying: Is Youth the Only Thing Worth Having?nbsp; (1995), and On Our Way.The Final Passage Through Life and Death(2004).nbsp; He has also served as editor of theMacmillan Encyclopedia of Death andDying,nbsp; (2003) and two previous encyclopedias.nbsp; In the public sphere he has served as a co-foundernbsp; of The National Caucus on Black Aging, consultant to the United States Senate Special Subcommittee on Aging, and participant in developing the Veterans Administrationrsquo;s geriatric research and educational centers, and the landmark National Hospice Demonstration Project.nbsp; Kastenbaum lives in Tempe, Arizona with Bunny (wife), Angel (The Incredible Leaping Dog), enhanced by Pumpkin and Snowflakenbsp; in the cat department.nbsp; Along with his continuing research interests, Kastenbaum has been writing book and verse for musicals and operas. He notes that nobody has died in the two most recently premiered operas (Closing Time;American Gothic, music by Kenneth LaFave), but cannot make any such promises about the next opera.

Preface
As We Think about Death
Not Thinking about Death: A Failed Experiment
Listening and Communicating
Your Self-Inventory of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Feelings
Some Answers-and the Questions They Raise
Knowledge Base
Attitudes, Experiences, Beliefs, Feelings
How Does State of Mind Affect Death-Related Behavior?
Man is Mortal: But What Does That Have to Do with Me?
Anxiety, Denial, and Acceptance: Three Core Concepts
Theories and Studies of Death Anxiety
Major Findings from Self-Reports of Death Anxiety
How Much Do We Fear Death?
Are There Gender Differences in Death Anxiety?
Are There Age Differences in Death Anxiety?
Is Death Anxiety Related to Mental Health and Illness?
Does Religious Belief Lower or Raise Death Anxiety?
Situational Death Anxiety
Theoretical Perspectives on Death Anxiety
Early Psychoanalytic Theory
The Existential Challenge
Edge Theory
Accepting and Denying Death
Types and Contexts of Acceptance and Denial
The Interpersonal Side of Acceptance and Denial
Anxiety, Denial, and Acceptance: How Should We Respond?
In the Shade of the Jambu Tree
Summary
What is Death? What Does Death Mean?
Competing Ideas about the Nature and Meaning of Death
Death as Observed, proclaimed, and Imagined
Death as Symbolic Construction
Biomedical Approaches to the Definition of Death
Traditional Determination of Death
Ways of Being Dead
Brain Death and the Harvard Criteria
The Harvard Criteria
The Current Scene
Event Versus State
What Does Death Mean?
Interpretations of the Death State
Enfeebled Life
Continuation
Perpetual Development
Waiting
Cycling and Recycling
Nothing
Virtual, Therefore Not Death
Implications of the Ways in Which We Interpret Death
Conditions That Resemble Death
Inorganic and Unresponsive
Sleep and Altered States of Consciousness
Beings Who Resemble or Represent Death
Death as a Person
How We Personify Death: The First Study
The Follow-Up Study
Conditions That Death Resembles
Social Death
Phenomenological Death
Death as an Agent of Personal, Political, and Social Change
The Great Leveler
The Great Validator
Death Unites/Separates
The Ultimate Problem or the Ultimate Solution?
The Ultimate Meaningless Event
Summary
The Death System
A World Without Death
General Consequences
Personal Consequences
Basic Characteristics of the Death System
Components of the Death System
People
Places
Times
Objects
Symbols
Functions of the Death System
Warnings and Predictions
Preventing Death
Caring for the Dying
Disposing of the Dead
Social Consolidation After Death
Making Sense of Death
Killing
War as a Function of Society
A Deadly Species
Sacrifice: Killing for Life
Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina-Challenges to the Death System
Tsunami: A Stealth Wave and Its Impact
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
The Katrina Timeline
Hurricane Katrina and the Death System
How our Death System Has Been Changing-And the "Deathniks" who are Making A difference
Changing Ways of Life, Changing Ways of Death
The Beginnings of Death Education, Research, and Counseling
Causes of Death: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Basic Terms and Concepts
Leading Causes of Death in the United States Today
What Will Be the Cause of My Death?
Causes of Death in the Future?
Summary
Dying: Transition from Life
The Moment of Death: Is it Vanishing?
The Slipping Away
Dying as Transition
What is Dying, and When Does it Begin?
Individual and Interpersonal Responses
Onset of the Dying Process: Alternative Perspectives
Trajectories of Dying: From Beginning to End
Certainty and Time
The Lingering Trajectory
The Expected Quick Trajectory
The Unexpected Quick Trajectory
Life-or-Death Emergencies
Healthy People Who are at Risk: Hemophilia
Guarded Feelings, Subtle Communications
Difficulties in Communication
Doctor-Patient Communication: The SUPPORT Study
Improving Communication
Individuality and Universality in the Experience of Dying
Factors that Influence the Experience of Dying
Where and How We Die-From the Abstract to the Particular
Theoretical Models of the Dying Process
Do We Die in Stages?
A Developmental Coping Model of the Dying Process
The Dying Person's Own Reality as the Model
A Multiple Perspective Approach
Your Deathbed Scene
Improving End-of-Life Care
Summary
Hospice and Palliative Care
Outside Mainstream Society
Hospice: A Flowering from Ancient Roots
Standards of Care for the Terminally Ill
Hidden or Implicit Standards of Care
Proposed Standards Recommended by the International Task Force
Establishment of Hospice Programs in the United States
The Hospice in Action
Entering St. Christopher's
Mother's Last Moments: A Daughter's Experience
Dying from Two Worlds
Adult Respite Care
Hospice-Inspired Care for Children
Hospice Care for People with AIDS
Hospice Care on the International Scene
Relief of Pain and Suffering
Why Pain Must Be Controlled
Other Symptoms and Problems
Your Deathbed Scene, Revisited
Hospice Access, Decision Making, and Challenges
Dame Cicely Saunders' Reflections on Hospice
Summary
End of Life Issues and Decisions
From Description to Decision Making
Who Should Participate in End-of-Life Decisions?
The Living Will and its Impact
Right-to-Die Decisions That We Can Make
From Living Will to Patient Self-Determination Act
College Students' Attitudes Toward End-of-Life Issues
Advance Medical Directives: What Should We Do?
A Right Not to Die? The Cryonics Alternative
Historical Background
Rationale and Method
Heads of Stone: A Radical New Development
More Questions
Organ Donation
Funeral-Related Decisions
A Perspective on End-of-Life Decisions
Summary
Suicide
What Do the Statistics Tell Us?
Suicide Patterns in the United States
What About Suicide Attempts?
The Human Side
Four Problem Areas
Youth Suicide
Do Children Commit Suicide?
Suicide Among Elderly Persons
The Lethality of Suicide Attempts in Later Adult Years
Preventing Suicide in Later Adult Years
Suicide Among Ethnic and Racial Minorities
Suicide Risk for War Combatants and Veterans
High-Risk Situations for Suicide
Gender and Suicide
Balancing Individual and Cultural Influences on Suicide
Some Cultural Meanings of Suicide
Suicide as Sinful
Suicide as Criminal
Suicide as Weakness or Madness
Suicide as "The Great Death"
Suicide as a Rational Alternative
A Powerful Sociological Theory of Suicide
The Importance of Social Integration
Four Types of Suicide
Some Individual Meanings of Suicide
Suicide for Reunion
Suicide for Rest and Refuge
Suicide for Revenge
Suicide as the Penalty for Failure
Suicide as a Mistake
A Psychoanalytical Approach to Suicide
The Descent Toward Suicide
Facts, Myths, and Guidelines
Popular Myths about Suicide
Suicide Prevention
Individual Guidelines to Suicide Prevention
Systematic Approaches to Suicide Prevention
Three Emerging Challenges
Summary
Violent Death: Murder, Terrorism, Genocide, Disaster, and Accident
Murder
Murder: The Statistical Picture
Patterns of Murder in the United States
Young Men with Guns
School Shootings
Mass and Serial Killers: Who Are They and Why Do They Do It?
Political Murder: Assassination in the United States
Terrorism
Terrorism in History
Twentieth Century Terrorism and Genocide
Twenty-First Century Terrorism and Genocide
World Trade Center Attacks
Immediate Responses to the Loss and Trauma
Later Responses
The Darfur Genocide
Accident and Disaster
Accidents
Natural Disasters
Summary
Euthanasia, Assisted Death, Abortion, and the Right to Die
"I Swear by Apollo the Physician": What Happened to the Hippocratic Oath?
Key Terms and Concepts
Nazi "Euthanasia"
The Black Stork
The Ventilator and the Slippery Slope
Our Changing Attitudes Toward A Right to Die
The Right-to-Die Dilemma: Case Examples
The Ethics of Withdrawing Treatment: The Landmark Quinlan Case
"It's over, Debbie": Compassion or Murder?
An Arrow Through the Physician's Armor
A Supreme Court Ruling: The Nancy Cruzan Case
Terri Schiavo: Who Decides?
The Ordeal Begins
Comments I
The Public Controversy
Comments II
Dr. Kevorkian and the Assisted-Suicide Movement
Assisted Death in the Kevorkian Manner
Kevorkian's Agenda
Kevorkian's Method
Evaluating Kevorkian's Approach
The Netherlands: A Social Experiment Watched Closely by the World
Australia: Yes, and Then No
Assisted Death in the United States
Compassion and Choices
The Oregon Death Dignity Act
Abortion
Basic Facts about Abortion
Difficult Issues and Questions
Summary
Death in the World of Childhood
Respecting the Child's Concern and Curiosity
Adult Assumptions About Children and Death
Children Do Think About Death
Early Experiences with Death in Childhood
Death in the Songs and Games of Childhood
Research and Clinical Evidence
Research Case Histories
Reflections and Questions
Concepts of Death: Developing Through Experience
"Auntie Death's" Pioneering Study
Evaluating Nagy's Contributions
Are Concepts of Death Related to Cognitive Level, Gender, and Social Class?
Does Anxiety Influence Children's Thoughts About Death?
Cultural Influences on Children's Concepts of Death
Do Imaginary Friends Die?
How do Children Cope with Bereavement?
A Death in the Family: Effects on the Child
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following a Violent Death
Long-Term Effects of Childhood Bereavement
Helping Children Cope with Bereavement
The Dying Child
Care of the Dying Child
Siblings of the Dying Child
The Stress of Working with Dying Children
Sharing the Child's Death Concerns: A Few Guidelines
The "Right" to Decide: Should the Child's Voice Be Heard?
Summary
Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning
Some Responses to Loss
Defining Our Terms: Bereavement, Grief, Mourning
Bereavement: An Objective Fact
Grief: A Painful Response
Mourning: A Signal of Distress
Theoretical Perspectives on Grief
Types of Grief
Normal and Complicated Grief
Anticipatory Grief
Resolved and Unresolved Grief
Hidden and Disenfranchised Grief
Theories of Grief
The Grief-Work Theory
Other Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Grief
How Do People Recover from Grief?
When a Husband or Wife Dies
The Family That Has Lost a Child
Bereavement in Later Life
Sorrow upon Sorrow, Loss upon Loss
Are Bereaved People at Higher Risk for Death?
Differential Mortality Risk: The Statistical Pattern
Who is Most at Risk?
What are the Leading Causes of Death Among the Bereaved?
How Well do We Support the Bereaved?
American Society's Discomfort with Grief and Mourning
Meaningful Help for Bereaved People
Widow to Widow: The Phyllis Silverman Interview
Helpful and Unhelpful Responses to the Bereaved Person
Professional Help: When Is It Needed?
Widows in Third World Nations
Summary
The Funeral Process
A Sampler of Responses to The Dead
What do Funerals Mean to Us?
From Dead Body to Living Memory: A Process Approach
Common Elements of the Funeral Process
The Funeral Service
Memorializing the Deceased
Getting on with Life
Making Death "Legal"
Establishing the Facts of Death
What Does the Funeral Process Accomplish?
When Great People Die
Balancing the Claims of the Living and the Dead
Memories of Our People: Cemeteries in the United States
The Neighborhood Cemetery
Ethnic Cemeteries in the United States
The Place of the Dead in Society: Yesterday and Today
When are the Dead Important to the Living?
American Memory and the Casualties of War and Terrorism
Who "Owns" Human Remains?
"You Were the Best Dog Ever": The Pet Cemetery
The Funeral Director's Perspective
Improving the Funeral Process
Alternative Funerals, The Memorial Society Option
Green Funerals
Virtual Memorials
Spontaneous Memorialization in Response to Violent Death
Integrity and Abuse in the Funeral and Memorial Process
Summary
Do We Survive Death?
Concept of Survival in Historical Perspective
Key Points
The Journey of the Dead
Heavens and Hells
The Desert Religions and Their One God
Jewish Survival Belief in the Ancient World
Heaven and Hell for Christians
Islamic Paradise and Jahannam
Science Rocks the Boat
What Other People Believe
Can Survival Be Proved?
Near-Death Experiences: Evidence for Survival?
Evidence Favoring the NDE as Proof of Survival
Biomedical Attempts to Verify NDE Phenomena
Eliminating other Explanations
The Case Against the NDE as Proof of Survival
Mystical, Depersonalization, and Hyperalertness Responses to Crisis
Why Do People Not Have NDEs? An Alternative Explanation
Are NDEs Hallucinations?
NDEs as Exercises in Religious Imagination?
What has been Learned from NDERs?
The Dead as Evidence for Survival
Deathbed Escorts: Safe Conduct to the Other World
Communicating with the Dead: The Medium and the Channeler
When Spiritism Was in Flower
Channeling and Past Life Regression
Ghosts
The Ghost Dance: A Peaceful Vision Becomes a Tragedy
Reincarnation
Should We Survive Death?
But What Kind of Survival?
Assisted and Symbolic Survival
Symbolic Immortality
Assisted Immortality
The Suicide-Survival Connection
Summary
How Can We Help? Caregiving and death education
"Compassionate Fatigue": Burnout and the Health Care Provider
Caregivers in Death-Salient Situations
Staff Burnout: What Effects on Patients?
How Can We Protect Ourselves from Burnout?
Death Educators and Counselors: The "Border Patrol"
Death Education in Historical Perspective
From Ancient Times
The Medieval Heritage
Death Education and Counseling: The Current Scene
SimMan: An Interview with Beatrice Kastenbaum
Counseling and the Counselors
Characteristics of Professionals in the Death System
Counseling and Psychotherapy
How We all Can Help
Summary
Good Life, Good Death? Trying to make sense of it all
Three Paths to Death
A Father Dies: A Mission Begins
A Shift in the Meaning of Life and Death?
Horrendous Death
The Golden Rule Revisited
Are We Live or on Tape? The Life-and-Death Challenges of Virtual Reality
Utopia: A Better Death in a Better Place?
Death in Utopia
A Better Death in a Better Place?
"The Good Death": Fantasy or Reality?
Extinction: Death of Life or Death of Death?
St. Paul's Cathedral, 1623
The Death of Species
From Good Life to Good Death: A Personal Statement
Summary
Index

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