Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science

ISBN-10: 020545884X
ISBN-13: 9780205458844
Edition: 11th 2006 (Revised)
List price: $111.80
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Book details

List price: $111.80
Edition: 11th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 592
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Preface
Through the Lens of Science
The Social Sciences
The Social World Seen through the Lens of Science
The Scientific Method
Concepts
Theories
Research
Steps of the Scientific Method
The Scientific Spirit: Skepticism, Objectivity, Relativity
The Social Science Disciplines
Anthropology
Economics
Fur or Nakedness, Tools or Diet?
Geography
History
Political Science
Psychology
Psychology: How Much of a Science?
Sociology
Research Methods in the Social Sciences
Sample Survey
Consilience
Case Study
Collecting Data with a Human Face
Participant Observation
The Experiment
Statistical Analysis
The Scientific Method in the Social Sciences
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
In the Beginning
An Astrophysicist Views the Cosmos
The Beginnings of Life
Creating Life
The Emergence of the Theory of Evolution
A Revolution in Thought: Darwin and His Theory
Natural Selection
The Role of Heredity
Genetics
Population Genetics: Factors for Change
Human Evolution Designed by Humans
The Long Trek: Human Evolution
Evolution: Theory or Fact?
Split between Chimpanzee and Human Lines
From Fossil to Fossil
The Road to Homo Sapiens
Homo Sapiens: Modern Humans
Agriculture: Cultivation and Domestication
The Evolution of Human Nature
Biological Foundations
Using Biology to Interpret History
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Culture: Product and Guide to Life in Society
Culture: Concept and Importance
Biological Predispositions to Culture
The Birth of Culture
Cultural Evolution and Sociobiology
What, Then, Is Culture?
The Symbolic Nature of Culture
The Necessity of Sharing Symbols
Language: The Most Important System of Symbols
Does Language Create Reality?
The Content of Culture
Material Culture
Nonmaterial Culture
The Components of Nonmaterial Culture: Cognitive and Normative
The Normative System
Contradictory American Values
Categories of Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboos, and Laws
From Folkways to Laws
The Need for Social Control
Overt and Covert, Real and Ideal Norms
Traits, Complexes, and Institutions
Pivotal Institutions
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativity
Cultural Differences and Universals
African Genital Rite
Subcultures and Countercultures
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Group Interaction: From Two to Millions
How Is the Social System Organized and Structured?
Elements of Social Structure: Statuses and Roles
Statuses: Ascribed and Achieved
The Multiplicity of Statuses and Roles
Real and Ideal Roles
Conflict, Strain, and Confusion in Roles
Groups
Group Size
Primary and Secondary Groups
Being Tall in the Land of the Small
Additional Classification of Groups
Society
A Glimpse into the Human Past
Classification of Societies
Classification According to Chief Mode of Subsistence
Industrial Societies
Classification According to Social Organization
Interaction and Social Processes
If Baboons Can Do It, Why Can't We?
Formal Organizations
Formal Organizations and Institutions Distinguished
Characteristics of Formal Organizations
Types of Formal Organizations
Bureaucracy
Dynamic Quality
Informal Side of Bureaucracy
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Becoming a Person: The Birth of Personality
The Isolated and/or Feral Child
Personality
Personality: A Social Product on a Biological Basis
Heredity and Environment
Becoming Human: Socialization
Goals and Functions of Socialization
Theories of Socialization
The Looking-Glass Self: Cooley
The Self in Society: Mead
You Are Who They Say You Are
The Self and the Unconscious: Freud
The Transitional Self: Erikson
Developmental Theories: Piaget
Moral Development: Kohlberg
Agents of Socialization
The Family
The School
The Maternal Bond: Its Impact on Personality
The Peer Group
The Media
Occupational Groups
Reverse Socialization
Resocialization
Socialization through the Life Cycle
Childhood
Adolescence
Adulthood
Old Age
Some Conclusions
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Deviance and Criminality: The Need for Social Control
Deviance
The Relative Nature of Deviance
Functions of Deviance
Explaining Deviance
Biological Explanations
Psychological Explanations
Why Are Humans Killers?
Mental Disorders
Treatment of Mental Disorders
Deviance as Seen from a Sociological Perspective
Social Integration and Anomie
Merton's Classification of Deviant Behavior
Cultural Transmission (Differential Association)
Labeling Theory
Crime: Deviance That Hurts
Classification of Crimes
What Contributes to Crime? How Can We Prevent It?
Social Order Crimes or Crimes against Morality
Crime Statistics: How Much Crime, and Who Commits It?
The Criminal Justice System
Imprisonment
Recidivism
What Price Punishment?
The Death Penalty
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
The Great Divide: Ranking and Stratification
Social Differentiation, Ranking, and Stratification
Stratification
American Royalty
Theoretical Views on Stratification
Structural-Functionalist Perspective
Conflict Perspective
Dimensions of Stratification: Class, Status, and Power
Class
Status
Class, Status, and Power in America
Power
Systems of Stratification
The Closed Society: Caste
The Estate System
The Open Society: Class System
Determining Social Class
Socioeconomic Status
Social Classes in the United States
The Upper Classes
The Middle Class
The Working Class
The Poor
The Ghetto Poor
The Homeless
The Growth of Inequality
Social Class and Its Consequences
Welfare: Are We Our Brothers' Keepers?
Family Life
Child Rearing
Education
Religion
Politics
Health
Arrest and Conviction
Values
Social Mobility
The Upwardly Mobile: Who Are They?
Social Mobility in the United States
Global Inequality
World Hunger
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Minority Status: Race and Ethnicity
Majority-Minorities Relations: Defining the Terms
Common Characteristics of Minorities
The Making of a Pluralist Society
Ideologies Regarding the Treatment of Minorities
Majority and Minorities: Processes of Coexistence
In the Way: Obstacles to Pluralism
Prejudice
Hate: Prejudice and Discrimination among Castes in India
Why Are We Prejudiced?
Discrimination
Racism
An Ongoing Controversy: Affirmative Action
Racial Minorities
Native Americans
Asian Americans
African Americans
Hispanic Americans
Ethnic and Religious Minorities
White Ethnics: Catholics
Jewish Americans
The New Face of America
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Minority Status: Age, Gender, and Sexuality
The Aging Society
Theoretical Framework
Ageism
The Silver Century
Women: Differentiation According to Gender
Biological Facts
Cultural Differences
Sex and Gender Differentiated
The Cultural Construction of Gender
Traditional Gender Roles
Gender Scripts
Women and Science
Male Dominance
Theories of Gender Role Development
Theories of Socialization
Agents of Gender Socialization
How Can We Change?
Adam's Curse
Sexuality
Homosexual Behavior
Explanatory Theories of Homosexuality
Acquiring a Homosexual Identity
Bisexuality
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
From the Plow to the Computer: Change, Collective Behavior, and Social Movements
Society and Change
The United States: A Century of Change
Levels of Change
Processes of Social and Cultural Change
Social Change: Planning, Reform, Revolution
Cultural Change: Innovation and Diffusion
The Sources of Change
Technology
Results of the First Technological Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Inventions and Discoveries of the Industrial Revolution
Industrialism
Technology and Social Change
Modernization
Learning to Be Modern
One Cost of Modernization: Car Wrecks
Collective Behavior
Crowds
Masses
The Theory of Mass Society
Publics and Public Opinion
Public Opinion
Public Opinion and the Mass Media
Propaganda and Censorship
Social Movements
Types of Social Movements
Reformist Movements
Revolutionary Movements
Factors Encouraging Revolutionary Movements
Terrorism
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Population, Urbanization, and Environment
Demographic Processes: Dynamics of Population Change
Birthrates
Death Rates
Migration
Immigration
Internal Migration
Characteristics and Composition of a Population
Sex Ratio
Age Structure
Population around the World
Malthus and Marx
Demographic Transition
Zero Population Growth
Population Policies
The Urban Society
Urbanization
The Industrial Revolution and the Growth of Cities
Urbanism
American Cities
Urban Theories
Suburbia
The Impact of the Consumer Culture on the Growth of Suburbia
Suburbia and Social Class
Metropolitanization and Megalopolis
Megalopolis
The Urban Crisis
Slums and Ghettos
Population Drain
Attempts to Reclaim the City
Urban Renewal
The Future of Cities
The Natural Environment
The World We Live In
The Ecosystem
Ecology
Disruption of Ecosystems
Environmental Pollution
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Pivotal Institutions: Marriage and the Family
The Basic Institution: The Family
Family Forms
Kinship Systems
Family Functions
Marriage
Limitations on Marriage
Love and Marriage in America
The Stages of Marriage
Arranged Marriages
The Scientific Study of Marriage?
The Role of Power in Marriage
Changing Marital Patterns
Divorce
Remarriage
Divorce as the New Norm
Consequences of Divorce: Wounds That Do Not Heal
The New American Family
Forms of the New American Family
Some Unintended Effects of the Changing American Family
Child Care
Family Violence
Teenage Pregnancy
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Pivotal Institutions: Religion and Education
The Great Religions of the World
Religion in the Social Sciences
Religion as Social Integration
A Functionalist View of Religion
A Conflict View of Religion
Religion and Social Control
The Institutional Context
Common Features of Religions
Religion in America
Religiosity in America
Religious Affiliation and Social Correlates
Religion, Race, and Ethnicity
The Sanctification of the American Way of Life
Science and Religion
Contemporary Trends
Fundamentalism
The Electronic Church
The Role of Women in Religion
Education
Education in America
The Functionalist View of Education
The Conflict View of Education
Characteristics of American Education
Upward Mobility as a Cure-All for Social Problems
Education, Class, and Race
Attempts at Making Education Work
Closing the Performance Gap
The Role of the Family
Separate and Unequal Again?
Higher Education
Some Contemporary Issues in Higher Education
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Government: The Institution and the Theories and Ideologies That Underlie It
The Institution of Government
Government and Politics
The Purpose of Government
The Functions of Government
Political Power: Legitimacy and Authority
Legitimacy
Authority
Types of Legitimate Authority
The State
Theoretical Views of the State
The Nation-State
Nationalism
The Ideologies behind the Nation-State
The Role of Ideology
Political Ideology
Autocratic Ideologies
Authoritarianism
Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism of the Right: Fascism and Nazism
Totalitarianism of the Left: Communism
Communism and the USSR
Historical Prediction: The Dialectic
Communism in China
Democratic Ideologies: Democracy
Democratic Capitalism
Socialism
Democratic Socialism
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
The Government of the United States of America
The Constitutional Convention
What Is a Constitution?
The Constitutional Convention
The Constitution of the United States
Federalism
Constitutional Limits and Obligations
How Federalism Has Worked
Trend toward Centralization
The Impact of the Federal Government
Separation of Powers
How Checks and Balances Work
Criticism of the Separation of Powers
The Presidency: The Executive Branch
The Nature of the Presidency
The Roles of the President
Congress: The Legislative Branch
The Issue of Representation
Congressional Committees
The Subordinate Role of Congress
The Supreme Court: The Judicial Branch
Membership of the 108th Congress: A Profile
The Court System
Functions of the Judicial System
A President Elected by a Supreme Court Decision
The Importance of Limited Government
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
We the People: Democracy in Action
American Democracy
How Is America Governed?
Elitism
Pluralism
Conflict and Consensus
A Realistic Democracy
Interest Groups
Functions of Interest Groups
Formation and Growth of Interest Groups
Lobbyists
Political Action Committees
Shortcomings of Interest Groups
Political Parties
Purpose of Political Parties
Functions of Political Parties
Features of the American Party System
Dealignment or Realignment?
The Party System in Decline
America: Red and Blue?
The High Cost of Campaigning
Voting
Factors in Voter Turnout
Peculiarities of American Voting: The Electoral College
The Nonvoters
Why Americans Are Uninterested in the Political Process
Political Opinion Making
Public and Political Opinion
The Mass Media
Sound Bites
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
The Economy: Concepts and History
The Economic Institution
Economic Decision Making
Basic Elements of the Economy
Factors of Production
Economic Choices and Opportunity Costs
Limits to Output: The Production Possibilities Frontier
Specialization of Labor
Trade, Barter, and Money
Contemporary Economic Systems: How Choices Are Made
Western Economies in Historical Perspective
The Birth of Capitalism
Aspects of Industrial Capitalism
The Corporate Form of Industrial Organization
From Competition to Advertising
Diversification and Multinationalism
The Nature of Work in the Industrial Society
Shifting Sectors
Machines: The Next Laborers
Professionalization
The Corporate Bureaucracy
The Executive
Middle Management: White-Collar Workers
Industrial Workers
Methods of Production: Craft, Mass, and Lean
The Factory System
The American Labor Movement
Collective Bargaining
The Labor Movement Today
Decline of Unionism
American Labor and the Global Economy
Globalism and Its Foes
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Principles of Economic Behavior: Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
The Small Picture and the Large Picture
Market Mechanisms
Who Makes Decisions?
Who Participates in the Economy?
Markets
The Circular Flow
Market Forces
Demand, Supply, and Price
Equilibrium and Price Elasticity
A Macroview
The Public Interest: Socioeconomic Goals
Full Employment
Desirable Mix of Output
High and Equitably Distributed Incomes
Reasonable Price Stability
Adequate Growth
Instruments of Public Policy
Fiscal Policy
The Function of Price and Employment Stabilizers
The Federal Budget
Fiscal Decision Making
Monetary Policy
Banks
Interest Rates
Regulating Banks
The Federal Reserve
Incomes Policy
Economic Problems and Government Response
Depression or Severe Recession
Excessive Demand and Inflation
Inflation and Unemployment
Business Cycles
Demand-Side Theories
Supply-Side Theories
Eclectic Theories
Theory and Reality
Old and New Economies
Fitting into the Global Economy
Computers and Humans: The New Division of Labor
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
Nation among Nations: Perspectives on International Relations
Regions of the World
Europe
The Former Soviet Union
The Middle East
Asia
Pacific Rim
Sub-Saharan Africa
Latin America
Anglo America
Other Ways of Classifying States
Rich Nations, Poor Nations
Interaction among Nations
Theoretical Perspectives
Realism
Contemporary Perspectives
Pluralism
Globalism
Neorealism
Participants in the International System
Actors in International Relations
The State and the Nation
The Emergence of the State
Nonstate Actors
The Goals of States
The Competition of Objectives
Means of Achieving Goals: Foreign Policy
Types of Foreign-Policy Decisions
Goals of American Foreign Policy
The Role of Ideology
Who Makes Foreign Policy Decisions?
Instruments of Foreign Policy
The United Nations
Foreign Aid
Collective Security
The Military
Propaganda
Diplomacy and Diplomats
Treaties and Alliances
Morality in Foreign Policy
Power
The Balance-of-Power System
The Multipolar System
The World Wars
The Bipolar System
A New Multipolar World
The Chapter in Brief
Terms to Remember
Suggested Readings
Web Sites of Interest
The Constitution of the United States of America
References
Photo Credits
Index

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