Public Speaking An Audience-Centered Approach

ISBN-10: 0205449832

ISBN-13: 9780205449835

Edition: 6th 2006 (Revised)

List price: $111.60
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Book details

List price: $111.60
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 494
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.640
Language: English

Preface
Speaking with Confidence
Why Study Public Speaking?
Empowerment
Employment
Public Speaking and Conversation
Public Speaking Is Planned
Public Speaking Is Formal
The Roles of Public Speakers and Audiences Are Clearly Defined
The Communication Process
Communication as Action
Communication as Interaction
Communication as Transaction
The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking
Great Speakers: Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)
Public Speaking and Diversity
Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker
Understand Your Nervousness
Build Your Confidence
Summary
Speaker's Homepage: Managing Your Nervousness
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
The Audience-Centered Speechmaking Process
An Audience-Centered Speechmaking Model
Consider Your Audience
Select and Narrow Your Topic
Who Is the Audience?
Great Speakers: Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)
What Is the Occasion?
What Are My Interests, Talents, and Experiences?
Determine Your Purpose
Develop Your Central Idea
Generate the Main Ideas
Does the Central Idea Have Logical Divisions?
Can You Think of Several Reasons the Central Idea Is True?
Can You Support the Central Idea with a Series of Steps?
Gather Verbal and Visual Supporting Material
Organize Your Speech
Sample Outline
Rehearse Your Speech
Speaker's Homepage: The Power of the Internet
Deliver Your Speech
Sample Speech: Our Immigration Story by Pao Yang Lee
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Ethics and Free Speech
Speaking Freely
Speaking Ethically
Have a Clear, Responsible Goal
Use Sound Evidence and Reasoning
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
Be Honest
Great Speakers: Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
Avoid Plagiarism
Sample Oral Citation
Speaker's Homepage: Tips for Ethics and Free Speech
Listening Ethically
Communicate Your Expectations and Feedback
Be Sensitive to and Tolerant of Differences
Listen Critically
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Listening to Speeches
Barriers to Effective Listening
Information Overload
Personal Concerns
Outside Distractions
Prejudice
Differences between Speech Rate and Thought Rate
Receiver Apprehension
Becoming a Better Listener
Adapt to the Speaker's Delivery
Listen with Your Eyes as Well as Your Ears
Monitor Your Emotional Reaction to a Message
Avoid Jumping to Conclusions
Be a Selfish Listener
Listen for Major Ideas
Identify Your Listening Goal
Practice Listening
Understand Your Listening Style
Become an Active Listener
Great Speakers: Cesar Chavez (1927-1993)
Improving Your Note-Taking Skills
Listening and Critical Thinking
Separate Facts from Inferences
Evaluate the Quality of Evidence
Evaluate the Underlying Logic and Reasoning
Analyzing and Evaluating Speeches
Understanding Criteria for Evaluating Speeches
Identifying and Analyzing Rhetorical Strategies
Speaker's Homepage: Developing Your Rhetorical Listening Skills
Giving Feedback to Others
Giving Feedback to Yourself
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Analyzing Your Audience
Becoming an Audience-Centered Speaker
Gather Information about Your Audience
Analyze Information about Your Audience
Great Speakers: Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
Adapt to Your Audience
Analyzing Your Audience before You Speak
Demographic Audience Analysis
Psychological Audience Analysis
Situational Audience Analysis
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Consider Your Audience
Speaker's Homepage: Gathering Information about Your Audience
Adapting to Your Audience as You Speak
Identifying Nonverbal Audience Cues
Responding to Nonverbal Cues
Strategies for Customizing Your Message to Your Audience
Analyzing Your Audience after You Speak
Nonverbal Responses
Verbal Responses
Survey Responses
Behavioral Responses
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Developing Your Speech
Select and Narrow Your Topic
Guidelines for Selecting a Topic
Strategies for Selecting a Topic
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Prime Your Creative Pump for a Speech Topic
Narrowing the Topic
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Select and Narrow Your Topic
Determine Your Purpose
General Purpose
Specific Purpose
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Determine Your Purpose
Develop Your Central Idea
A Complete Declarative Sentence
Direct, Specific Language
A Single Idea
An Audience-Centered Idea
Great Speakers: Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Develop Your Central Idea
Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas
Generating Your Main Ideas
Previewing Your Main Ideas
Meanwhile, Back at the Computer...
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Generate and Preview Your Main Ideas
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Gathering Supporting Material
Personal Knowledge and Experience
The Internet
The World Wide Web
Directories and Search Engines
Evaluating Web Resources
Speaker's Homepage: Evaluating Web Sites
Library Resources
Books
Periodicals
Full-Text Databases
Newspapers
Reference Resources
Government Documents
Special Services
Interviews
Determining the Purpose of the Interview
Great Speakers: Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)
Setting Up the Interview
Planning the Interview
Conducting the Interview
Following Up the Interview
Resources from Special-Interest Groups and Organizations
Research Strategies
Develop a Preliminary Bibliography
Locate Resources
Evaluate the Usefulness of Resources
Take Notes
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Gather Supporting Material
Identify Possible Presentation Aids
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Supporting Your Speech
Illustrations
Brief Illustrations
Extended Illustrations
Hypothetical Illustrations
Using Illustrations Effectively
Great Speakers: Garrison Keillor (1942-)
Descriptions and Explanations
Describing
Explaining How
Explaining Why
Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively
Definitions
Definitions by Classification
Operational Definitions
Using Definitions Effectively
Analogies
Literal Analogies
Figurative Analogies
Using Analogies Effectively
Statistics
Using Statistics as Support
Using Statistics Effectively
Opinions
Expert Testimony
Lay Testimony
Literary Quotations
Using Opinions Effectively
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet to Find Interesting Supporting Material
Selecting the Best Supporting Material
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Organizing Your Speech
Organizing Your Main Ideas
Ordering Ideas Chronologically
Organizing Ideas Topically
Arranging Ideas Spatially
Organizing Ideas to Show Cause and Effect
Organizing Ideas by Problem and Solution
Acknowledging Cultural Differences in Organization
Great Speakers: Desmond Tutu (1931-)
Subdividing Your Main Ideas
Speaker's Homepage: Internet Resources to Help You Organize Your Speech
Integrating Your Supporting Material
Sample Integration of Supporting Material
Organizing Your Supporting Material
Primacy or Recency
Specificity
Developing Your Speech Step By Step: Organize Your Speech
Complexity
From Soft to Hard Evidence
Developing Signposts
Transitions
Previews
Summaries
Supplementing Signposts with Presentation Aids
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech
Purposes of Introductions
Get the Audience's Attention
Introduce the Subject
Give the Audience a Reason to Listen
Establish Your Credibility
Preview Your Main Ideas
Effective Introductions
Illustrations or Anecdotes
Startling Facts or Statistics
Quotations
Humor
Questions
References to Historic Events
References to Recent Events
Personal References
References to the Occasion
References to Preceding Speeches
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Web to Find an Attention-Catching Introduction
Purposes of Conclusions
Summarize the Speech
Reemphasize the Central Idea in a Memorable Way
Motivate the Audience to Respond
Provide Closure
Effective Conclusions
Methods Also Used for Introductions
References to the Introduction
Inspirational Appeals or Challenges
Great Speakers: Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
Appeals to Action
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Outlining and Editing Your Speech
Developing Your Preparation Outline
The Preparation Outline
Sample Preparation Outline
Sample Preparation Outline
Editing Your Speech
Developing Your Delivery Outline and Speaking Notes
The Delivery Outline
Sample Delivery Outline
Sample Delivery Outline
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Improve Your Outlining Skill
Speaking Notes
Great Speakers: Mark Twain (1835-1910)
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Using Words Well: Speaker Language and Style
Oral versus Written Language Style
Oral Style Is More Personal Than Written Style
Oral Style Is Less Formal Than Written Style
Oral Style Is More Repetitive Than Written Style
Using Words Effectively
Use Specific, Concrete Words
Use Simple Words
Use Words Correctly
Adapting Your Language Style to Diverse Listeners
Use Language That Your Audience Can Understand
Use Appropriate Language
Use Unbiased Language
Crafting Memorable Word Structures
Creating Figurative Images
Creating Drama
Creating Cadence
Speaker's Homepage: Using Internet Resources to Polish Your Spoken Prose
Analyzing an Example of Memorable Word Structure
Great Speakers: John F. Kennedy (1917-1963)
Tips for Using Language Effectively
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Delivering Your Speech
The Power of Speech Delivery
Listeners Expect Effective Delivery
Listeners Make Emotional Connections with You through Delivery
Listeners Believe What They See
Methods of Delivery
Manuscript Speaking
Memorized Speaking
Impromptu Speaking
Extemporaneous Speaking
Characteristics of Effective Delivery
Eye Contact
Gestures
Movement
Posture
Facial Expression
Vocal Delivery
Great Speakers: Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.)
Personal Appearance
Speaker's Homepage: Evaluating Speaker Delivery
Audience Diversity and Delivery
Rehearsing Your Speech: Some Final Tips
Delivering Your Speech
Developing Your Speech Step by Step: Rehearse Your Speech
Adapting Your Speech Delivery for Television
Developing Your Speech Step by Step: Deliver Your Speech
Responding to Questions
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Using Presentation Aids
The Value of Presentation Aids
Great Speakers: Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)
Types of Presentation Aids
Three-Dimensional Presentation Aids
Two-Dimensional Presentation Aids
Speaker's Homepage: Using the Internet as a Source for Visuals for Your Speeches
Audiovisual Aids
Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids
Make Them Easy to See
Keep Them Simple
Select the Right Presentation Aids
Do Not Use Dangerous or Illegal Presentation Aids
Guidelines for Using Presentation Aids
Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids
Make Eye Contact with Your Audience, Not with Your Presentation Aids
Explain Your Presentation Aids
Do Not Pass Objects among Members of Your Audience
Use Animals with Caution
Use Handouts Effectively
Time the Use of Visuals to Control Your Audience's Attention
Use Technology Effectively
Remember Murphy's Law
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Speaking to Inform
Goals of Informative Speaking
Speaking to Enhance Understanding
Speaking to Maintain Interest
Speaking to Be Remembered
Types of Informative Speeches
Speeches about Objects
Speeches about Procedures
Speeches about People
Speeches about Events
Speeches about Ideas
Strategies to Enhance Audience Understanding
Speak with Clarity
Use Principles and Techniques of Adult Learning
Clarify Complex Processes
Use Effective Visual Reinforcement
Strategies to Maintain Audience Interest
Establish a Motive for Your Audience to Listen to You
Speaker's Homepage: Finding Late-Breaking News and Information for Your Speech
Tell a Story
Great Speakers: Beverly Sills (1929-)
Present Information That Relates to Your Listeners
Strategies to Enhance Audience Recall
Build in Redundancy
Pace Your Information Flow
Reinforce Key Ideas Verbally
Reinforce Key Ideas Nonverbally
Sample Informative Speech: Choosing a Speech Topic by Roger Fringer
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Understanding Principles of Persuasive Speaking
Persuasion Defined
How Persuasion Works
How to Motivate Listeners
Use Dissonance
Use Listener Needs
Use Positive Motivation
Use Negative Motivation
Great Speakers: Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)
How to Develop Your Persuasive Speech
Consider the Audience
Select and Narrow Your Persuasive Topic
Determine Your Persuasive Purpose
Develop Your Central Idea and Main Ideas
Putting Persuasive Principles into Practice
Speaker's Homepage: Finding Out about Congressional Legislation for Persuasive Speeches
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Using Persuasive Strategies
Establishing Credibility
Enhancing Your Credibility
Using Logic and Evidence to Persuade
Understanding Types of Reasoning
Persuading the Diverse Audience
Supporting Your Reasoning with Evidence
Avoiding Faulty Reasoning: Ethical Issues
Using Emotion to Persuade
Speaker's Homepage: Information Triage: Identifying Reasoning Fallacies
Great Speakers: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)
Tips for Using Emotion to Persuade
Using Emotional Appeals: Ethical Issues
Strategies for Adapting Ideas to People and People to Ideas
Persuading the Receptive Audience
Persuading the Neutral Audience
Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
Strategies for Organizing Persuasive Messages
Problem-Solution
Refutation
Cause and Effect
The Motivated Sequence
Sample Persuasive Speech: Medical Mayhem by Alyssa Horn
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Special-Occasion Speaking
Public Speaking in the Workplace
Reports
Public-Relations Speeches
Ceremonial Speaking
Introductions
Toasts
Speaker's Homepage: A Toast to You and Yours: Tips for Making Toasts
Award Presentations
Nominations
Acceptances
Keynote Addresses
Commencement Addresses
Commemorative Addresses and Tributes
Eulogies
After-Dinner Speaking: Using Humor Effectively
Humorous Stories
Humorous Verbal Strategies
Humorous Nonverbal Strategies
Great Speakers: Dave Barry (1947-)
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Speaking in Small Groups
Solving Problems in Groups and Teams
Identify and Define the Problem
Analyze the Problem
Generate Possible Solutions
Select the Best Solution
Test and Implement the Solution
Participating in Small Groups
Come Prepared for Group Discussions
Do Not Suggest Solutions before Analyzing the Problem
Evaluate Evidence
Help Summarize the Group's Progress
Listen and Respond Courteously to Others
Help Manage Conflict
Leading Small Groups
Leadership Responsibilities
Leadership Styles
Managing Meetings
How to Give Meetings Structure
How to Foster Meeting Interaction
Speaker's Homepage: Using Parliamentary Procedure to Give Structure to Large Groups
Presenting Group Recommendations
Great Speakers: Oprah Winfrey (1954-)
Symposium Presentation
Forum Pressentation
Panel Discussion
Written Report
Planning a Group Presentation
Making a Group Presentation
Summary
Being Audience-Centered: A Sharper Focus
Epilogue
Speaker's Homepage: Learning More about Communication
The Classical Tradition of Rhetoric
The Earliest Teachers of Rhetoric
Beginning of the Greek Tradition: The Sophists
Plato
Aristotle
The Roman Tradition
Conclusion
Speeches for Analysis and Discussion
I Have a Dream
Making Democracy Work: Your Responsibility to Society
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