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Educational Research in an Age of Accountability

ISBN-10: 0205439829
ISBN-13: 9780205439829
Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)
Authors: Robert E. Slavin
List price: $125.60
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Description: The book is designed to enable readers to become intelligent consumers of educational research in order to help create effective and accountable learning environments. Written in a very clear and user-friendly style, this book focuses on  More...

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Book details

List price: $125.60
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/2/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 432
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.672
Language: English

The book is designed to enable readers to become intelligent consumers of educational research in order to help create effective and accountable learning environments. Written in a very clear and user-friendly style, this book focuses on understanding the intent of the researcher, the procedures, and the results so that readers can use appropriate research findings to inform school change. The author emphasizes how responses to the accountability movement in schools can be focused around using and understanding scientific inquiry. The book balances quantititive and qualitative research methodology and discusses action research and mixed methods in detail. Readers are shown how to analyze and evaluate the research, and judge the usefulness of the findings for educational practice. In addition, readers are shown how this knowledge can translate to classroom practice.

Features
Preface
Introduction
Educational Research in an Age of Accountability
Evidence-Based Education
The Role of Research in Evidence-Based Education
Education Policy and Reform
Accountability
Effectiveness
What Is Research?
The Best Possible Answer to the Best Possible Question
Types of Research in Education
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
Other Types of Research
Research Design
The Logic of Research Design
Important Elements in Research
Hypotheses
The Gremlin
Disproving the Null Hypothesis
Theory
Statistical Significance
False Positive and False Negative Errors
Internal Validity
External Validity
Essentials of Research Design
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Quantitative Research Designs
Randomized Experimental Designs
Experimental Comparisons in an Age of Accountability
Random Assignment
Random Assignment of Individuals
Stratified Random Assignment
Randomized Experimental Comparisons
Control Groups
Intent to Treat
Pretesting
Experiments with More Than Two Treatments
Interactions in Factorial Experiments
Ordinal versus Disordinal Interactions
Factorial Designs with More Than Two Factors
Alternatives to Random Assignment of Individuals
Random Assignment of Classes, Schools, and Teachers
Delayed Treatment Control Group Designs
Within-Teacher Random Assignment
Example of an Experiment
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Quasi-Experiments
Conducting Quasi-Experiments
Minimizing Selection Bias in Quasi-Experiments
Making Comparisons
Pre-Post Comparisons
Successive-Year Comparisons
Artificial Control Groups
What If Pretests Are Not Equal in Different Treatment Groups?
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Time Series Designs
Single-Case Experiments
Reversal (ABA) Designs
Multiple-Baseline Designs
Groups as Single Cases
Statistics in Single-Case Designs
Limitations of Single-Case Designs
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Nonexperimental Quantitative Designs
Correlational Designs
Correlation Coefficients
Correlational Designs Using Categorical Variables
Advantages of Correlational Designs
Causal-Comparative Designs
Large Correlation Matrices
The Problem of Causation in Correlational Research
Mutual Causation
Self-Selection Bias
Spurious Correlations
The Role of Theory in Correlational Research
Control Variables
Multiple Regression
Limitations of Control Variables
Example of a Correlational Study
Descriptive Research
Survey Research
Assessment Research
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Survey Research
Types of Surveys
Face-to-Face Interviews
Telephone Interviews
Mail and E-Mail Surveys
Creating the Research Instrument
Constructing Questionnaires
Open versus Closed Form
Principles of Questionnaire Construction
Sociometric Questionnaires
Constructing Interviews
Creating an Interview Protocol
Piloting the Interview Protocol
Recording Interviews
Preventing Bias in Interviews
Coding Interview Responses
Sampling
Random Samples
Cluster Samples
Stratified Random Samples
Samples of Convenience
Missing Data
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Qualitative and Action Research Designs
Introduction to Qualitative Research
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Qualitative research uses the natural setting as the direct source of data and the researcher as the key instrument
Qualitative research is descriptive
Qualitative research is concerned with process, rather than simply with outcomes or products
Qualitative research includes an inductive analysis of data
Meaning is subjective and of essential concern to the qualitative approach
Qualitative researchers are aware of their subjective perspective
Steps in Qualitative Research
Identify What Will Be Studied
Identify Who Will Be Studied
Collect Data
Analyze Data
Generate Hypotheses
Make Interpretations and Conclusions
Data Collection and Qualitative Data
Collecting Data
Naturalistic Observation
Open-Ended Interviews
Types of Data
Field Notes
Documents and Photographs
Statistics
Triangulation
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research: The Wrong Question
How They Differ
Generalizability versus Depth
Hypothesis Testing versus Hypothesis Generation
When Are Qualitative Methods Useful?
Mixed Methods: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
Qualitative-Quantitative Approach
Quantitative-Qualitative Approach
Combined Approach
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Qualitative Designs
Different Perspectives, Different Approaches
Traditional Approaches
Ethnography
Forms of Ethnographic Data
Steps in Ethnographic Research
When Is Ethnography Appropriate?
Limitations of Ethnography
Phenomenology
Forms of Phenomenological Data
Steps in Phenomenological Research
When Is Phenomenology Appropriate?
Limitations of Phenomenology
Case Studies
Forms of Case Study Data
Steps in Case Studies
Example of a Qualitative Study
When Are Case Studies Appropriate?
Limitations of Case Studies
Historical Research
Forms of Historical Data
Steps in Historical Research
When Is Historical Research Appropriate?
Limitations of Historical Research
Content Analysis
Forms of Content Analysis Data
Steps in Content Analysis
When Is Content Analysis Appropriate?
Limitations of Content Analysis
Postmodern Research Designs
Critical Theory
Feminist Approach
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Action Research
Understanding Action Research
Action Research versus Traditional Research
Types of Action Research
Practical Action Research
Participatory Action Research
Political Action Research
Conducting Action Research
Steps in Action Research
When Is Action Research Appropriate?
Limitations of Action Research
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Planning and Implementing Research
Measurement
Measures: Reliability and Validity
Reliability
The Importance of Reliability
Forming Scales
Computing Reliability Coefficients
When Is Scale Reliability Adequate?
Validity
Face Validity
Content Validity
Predictive Validity
Concurrent Validity
Construct Validity
Types of Measures
Achievement and Aptitude Tests
Standardized Tests
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Authentic Tests
Researcher-Made, Content-Specific Tests
Questionnaire Scales
Behavioral Observation
Constructing a Behavioral Observation System
Reliability and Bias in Behavioral Observation
When Is Reliability Adequate?
Increasing Reliability of Behavioral Observations
Writing the Observation Manual
Reliability for Rating Scales
Determining Sample Size
When Is Sample Size Adequate?
Statistical Significance versus Practical and Theoretical Importance
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Threats to Internal and External Validity
Threats to Internal Validity
History
Maturation (Passage of Time)
Testing Effects
Instrumentation Effects
Selection Bias
Statistical Regression
Mortality (Attrition)
Confounding Variables
Threats to External Validity
Lack of Internal Validity
Nonrepresentativeness
Artificiality
Reactivity
Hawthorne Effects
John Henry Effects
Mistaken Causal Models
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Planning and Implementing the Study
Planning Your Own Study
Choosing a Problem
Criteria for a Good Research Topic
Other Considerations in Choosing a Topic
Reviewing the Literature
Gathering Preliminary Information
Widely Focused Literature Search
Primary Resources for Information Gathering in Education
Choosing Search Terms
Summarizing Studies
Inclusion Criteria
Germaneness
Methodology
Other Features
Writing the Review
Synthesis
Methodology
Significance
Writing Style
Meta-Analysis
Writing a Proposal
Elements of a Research Proposal
Statement of the Problem
Hypotheses
Brief Literature Review
Procedures
Schedule
Roughing Out and Discussing the Proposal
Evaluating the Proposal
Planning Study Procedures
Teacher's Manual
Observer's Manual and Interviewer's Manual
Testing Instructions
Research Ethics: Consent, Confidentiality, and Human Subjects Review
Human Subjects Review and Informed Consent
Confidentiality
Gaining Access to Schools and Implementing the Project
Implementing the Project
Maintaining the Integrity of the Research
Report Back Your Findings
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Data Analysis
Basic Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Computing Statistics
Data Analysis with SPSS
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Standard Deviation and Variance
The Normal Curve
z-Scores
Percentile Scores
Normal Curve Equivalent
Skewed Distributions
Kurtosis
Standard Error of the Mean
Inferential Statistics
The Null Hypothesis (H[subscript 0])
Criteria for Rejecting the Null Hypothesis
Type I and Type II Errors
Rejecting the Null Hypothesis
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests of Significance
t-Test for Comparisons of Two Independent Group Means
Computing t
Homogeneity of Variances
t-Test for Comparisons of Two Means from Matched Groups
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Intermediate Statistics
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Comparison of Three Groups: 3 x 1 ANOVA
Two-Factor ANOVA
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
Analysis of Variance versus Analysis of Covariance
Individual Comparisons
Effect Size
Correlation
Correlations with Categorical Variables
Partial Correlation
Linear and Nonlinear Relationships
Nonparametric Statistics
Chi-Square (x[superscript 2])
Statistics for Reliability
KR 20
Coefficient Alpha
Research Navigator
Key Terms
Activity
Exercises
Further Reading
Reading and Reporting Research
Writing Up the Study
Writing a Thesis or Dissertation
Format and Style
Parts of Your Thesis
Title Page
Acknowledgments
Table of Contents and Lists of Tables and Figures
Introduction
Review of the Literature
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Appendixes
Writing a Journal Article or Conference Paper
Format and Style of Journal Articles and Conference Papers
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Tables and Figures
Choosing a Journal
Conference Papers
Tips on Getting an Article Published
Research Navigator
Activity
Further Reading
Appendixes
Percentage of Area Lying between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units under the Normal Curve
Critical Values of t
Values of F at the 5% and 1% Significance Levels
Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi-Square
Table of Random Numbers
Answers to Exercises
Example of an Experimental Article
Example of a Correlational Article
Example of a Qualitative Article
Glossary
References
Index

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