Argumentation and Critical Decision Making

ISBN-10: 0205417930

ISBN-13: 9780205417933

Edition: 6th 2005 (Revised)

List price: $95.00
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Book details

List price: $95.00
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Preface
The Domain of Argumentation
Elements of Argumentation
Adherence
Appropriate Decision Makers
Spheres
Claims
Support
Argument
Criticism
Elements of Critical Decision Making
Toleration of Uncertainty
Critical Thinking--The Internal Dialogue
Dialectic--The External Dialogue
Rhetoric
Acting Within Uncertainty
Conclusion
Projects
References
Critical Appraisal of Argumentation
Argumentation and Being Reasonable
Why People Advance Unreasonable Arguments
Beliefs are Not Necessarily Reasonable
Thinking is Not Necessarily Reasonable
The Mind is Not Necessarily Reasonable
Social Influence is Not Necessarily Reasonable
Characteristics of Reasonable Arguments
The Bases of Reason in Argumentation
Starting Points for Argumentation
Spheres
Definition of Spheres
Location of Spheres
Spheres and Level of Activity
Ultimate Purpose
Adjusting Arguments to Spheres
Common Patterns of Criteria
Logic
Good Reasons
Science
A Good Story
Conclusion
Projects
References
Analysis in Argumentation
Terms in Argumentation
Claim
Issue
Proposition
Purpose of Analysis in Argumentation
Critical Analysis to Find a Proposition
Identify the Question
Survey Implicated Objectives and Values
Canvass Alternative Decisions
Weigh the Costs and Risks
Search for New Information
Criticize the Alternatives
Note Your Biases that Block Alternatives
Select a Proposition
Critical Analysis of a Proposition
Determining the Issues
Rank-Order the Issues
Stock Issue Analysis
Comparative Advantage
Analysis of Claims
Identify the Most Significant Claims
Clarify What Each Claim Asserts
Locate the Points of Disagreement
Conclusion
Projects
Argument in Favor of Proposition 6
Argument Against Proposition 6
References
Case Building
Preliminary Steps in Case Building
Follow Critical Decision Making
Identify the Nature of the Proposition
Assess Presumptions and Burden of Proof
Briefing Arguments
The Elements of the Brief
An Example of a Brief
Developing a Convincing Vision
Learn the Decision Makers' Vision
Tell the Story of Your Vision
Consider an Example
Communication to Specific Decision Makers
What Are the Communication Constraints?
What Counterargument Will Occur?
What Argumentative Format Will Be Used?
What Are the Rules of the Sphere?
How Will the Decision Be Made?
What Critical Values Will Be Applied?
What Sequence of Claims Is Most Appropriate?
Conclusion
Projects
References
Analysis and Case Building in Law
The Trial
Analysis Through Critical Decision Making
Building the Case
The Appeal
Appellate Brief
The Attorney General's Response
The Appellate Decision
The Impact of the Trial
Conclusion
Projects
References
The Nature of Arguments
The Model of an Argument
Claim
Grounds
Warrant
Backing
Qualifier
Rebuttal and Reservation
Types of Arguments
Argument by Generalization
Argument by Cause
Argument by Sign
Argument by Analogy
Argument from Authority
Definition as Argument
Formal Definition
Definition by Example
Functional Definition
Definition by Analogy
Definition by Authority
The Analysis of Arguments
Characteristics of Arguments
Guidelines for Analyzing Arguments
Conclusion
Projects
References
Support: Evidence
Forms of Evidence
Example
Statistics
Testimony
General Principles for the Use of Evidence
Use Representative Instances
Use a Sufficient Number of Instances
Account for Negative Instances
Give the Value Characteristics of Instances
Make Instances Seem Real with Details
Use Decision Makers' Experience
Use Current Examples and Statistics
Use Reliable Sources for Instances and Statistics
Carefully Consider Statistical Measures
Use Comparison to Clarify Statistics
Base Testimony on Credibility Measures
Sphere Dependence of Evidence
Hearsay Evidence
Ordinary and Expert Evidence
Reluctant Evidence
Negative Evidence
Documented Evidence
Assertion and Evidence
Conclusion
Projects
References
Argument and Evidence in Science
The Tradition of Argumentation in Science
Claims of Fact
Search for Truth over Personal Gain
Testable Results
Established Theory Changes Slowly
Scientific Use of Argument Types
Argument by Generalization
Argument by Cause
Argument by Sign
Argument by Analogy
Argument from Authority
Scientific Use of Evidence
Empirically Grounded Claims
Specific Instances
Statistics in Science
Testimony
Conclusion
Projects
References
Evidence and Argument in Religion
Major Questions in Religious Argumentation
What is the Nature of God?
What is the Nature of Human Beings?
What is Moral Behavior?
What is the Meaning of Suffering?
What is the Human's Relationship to God?
What is the Nature of Immortality?
What is the Role of the Church?
Texts as Evidence in Religious Argumentation
What Texts are Most Accurate?
What Texts are Most Trustworthy?
How Are Texts Interpreted?
What Factors Affect Interpretation?
Preferred Argument Forms
Argument from General Principle
Argument by Analogy
Argument by Sign
Argument by Paradox
Argument by Generalization
Conclusion
Projects
References
Support: Values
Characteristics of Values
Stated and Implied Values
Positive and Negative Values
Terminal and Instrumental Values
Abstract and Concrete Values
Values Appear in Systems
Traditional Value Systems
Values Are Graded in Systems
General Principles for the Use of Values
Values May Be Found Anywhere in an Argument
Recognize Values in Warrants
Find the Values in the Arguments of Others
Recognize the Limits of Value Change
Find the Best Point of Attack on Values
Relate Your Values to Decision Makers
Use Evidence and Argument to Develop Values
Sphere Dependence of Values
Values in Scientific Argument
Values in Religion
The Relation of Science and Religion
Conclusion
Projects
References
Support: Credibility
Characteristics of Credibility
Competence and Trustworthiness
Goodwill and Dynamism
Forms of Credibility
Direct Credibility
Secondary Credibility
Indirect Credibility
General Principles for the Use of Credibility
Develop Credibility from Reputation
Be Sincere
Identify with Decision Makers' Values
Use Evidence to Build Credibility
Use Organization to Build Credibility
Argue Issues, Not People
Understand Credibility as Dynamic
Sphere Dependence of Credibility
The Reputation of the Arguer
Secondary Credibility in Spheres
Indirect Credibility in Spheres
Conclusion
Projects
References
Values and Credibility in Business
The Nature of Business Argumentation
Argumentation in a Retail Setting
Argumentation in a Manufacturing Setting
Business in American Society
The Concept of Business
Government and Business
Voluntary Social Action
Credibility in Business Argumentation
Organizational Credibility
Managerial Credibility
Consultant/Specialist Credibility
Product Credibility
Values in Business Argumentation
The Future
Success in Business
Cost/Benefit
Competition
Production/Consumption
Context of Business Argumentation
Organizational Culture
Contextualizing Values
Sensemaking in Organizations
Conclusion
Projects
References
Refutation
The Process of Refutation
Approaching Refutation
Setting a Framework for Refutation
Assess the Argumentative Situation
Analyze the Decision Makers
Analyze Opponents
Selecting a Posture for Refutation
Refute from a Constructive Basis
Defend Your Position
Keep the Focus on the Goals of Decision Making
Engage in Framebreaking
Test the Credibility of Other Factions
Stop the Momentum
Deny Support
Communicating Refutation
Block Arguments
Probe Opponents
Follow Good Communication Practices
Conclusion
Projects
References
Refutation by Fallacy Claims
Views of Fallacy
Fallacy as Incorrect Logic
Fallacy as Sophistry
Fallacies as Violations of Discussion Rules
Using Fallacy Claims in Refutation
Social Guides to Fallacy Claims
Intent to Deceive
Refusal to Reason
Breach of Conversational Cooperation
Conclusion
Projects
References
Refutation in Government and Politics
The Nature of Political Argumentation
The Claims of Political Argumentation
The Content of Political Claims
The Development of Political Claims
Refutation in Government and Politics
Refutation in Committee Hearings
Characteristics of Hearings
Using the Record in Hearings
Focus for the Record in Hearings
The Forms of Refutation in Hearings
Telling Good Stories
Refutation in Legislative Action
Refutation Is Usually Not Confrontational
Refutation Is Usually Not Personal
The Amendment Process as Refutation
Refutation Has an Important Credibility Function
Relations Between Legislature and the Executive
Argumentation in Political Campaigns
Campaigns Involve Issues and Images
Campaign Arguments Are Linked to "The People"
Telling the Right Story
Maintaining the Story
Media and Refutation
The Special Role of Debates
Refutation in the Political Campaign
Refutation Is Usually About Testing Proposals With Values
Evidence Is Important in Refutation
Credibility Is Significant in Refutation
The Story Is Significant in Refutation
Leave No Shot Unanswered
Refutation By Inoculation
Conclusion
Projects
References
Index
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