Personality A Systems Approach

ISBN-10: 0205389147
ISBN-13: 9780205389148
Edition: 2007
List price: $188.80 Buy it from $0.01
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Description: Today, the discipline of Personality Psychology is undergoing a renaissance. This textbook, Personality: A Systems Approach is constructed according to an exciting new roadmap of the field that draws on the field's best and longstanding intellectual  More...

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Book details

List price: $188.80
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/4/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 560
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.332
Language: English

Today, the discipline of Personality Psychology is undergoing a renaissance. This textbook, Personality: A Systems Approach is constructed according to an exciting new roadmap of the field that draws on the field's best and longstanding intellectual traditions. By examining personality from its defining qualities, parts, organization, and development, students learn about human personality, including their own personalities, and the influence of an individual's personality on his or her life. This textbook helps students engage with the contemporary field of personality psychology using an integrated new treatment: Students will see how their own individual thoughts, motives, feelings, and mental models are part of their personalities, and the importance of personality to their personal and social functioning. Please enter here-awaiting toc to complete Personality or Theories of Personality

Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Boston College. She received her undergraduate degree from the University of Toronto and her PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Waterloo. Dr. Barrett's research focuses on the generation and representation of emotional experience, but she has also published papers in related areas, including the structure of affect, interpersonal relationships, experience sampling procedures, and, more generally, the role of retrospection in the self-report process. Peter Salovey, PhD, is the Chris Argyris Professor of Psychology, Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health, and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Yale University. He is also Director of the Department of Psychology's Health, Emotion, and Behavior Laboratory and Deputy Director of the Yale Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS. Dr. Salovey has published over 175 articles and has been an editorial board member of several journals. A recipient of the Presidential Young Investigator Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF), he has served on the NSF Social Psychology Advisory Panel. His recent work on emotion has focused on the ways in which feelings facilitate adaptive cognitive and behavioral functioning.

Examining Personality
What is Personality?
What Are the Fundamental Questions Addressed by Personality Psychology?
What Is the Personality System?
What Is the Field of Personality Psychology
Why Study Personality Psychology?
How Is This Book Organized -- And What Will You Learn?
Research in Personality Psychology
Where Do the Data Come From?
What Research Designs are Used in Personality?
What Does it Mean to Measure Personality?
How Do Psychologists Study Many Personality Variables Together?
Perspectives on Personality
What are Perspectives on Personality?
What is the Biological Perspective?
What is the Intrapsychic Perspective?
What is the Sociocultural Perspective?
What is the Temporal-Developmental Perspective?
How Does One Cope with Multiple Theories?
Parts Of Personality
Motivation and Emotion
What Are Motives?
How Are Motives Expressed?
What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important?
What Are the Emotional Traits and How Are They Expressed?
What Are Happy People Like?
Interior Selves; Interior Worlds
What are Mental Models?
What Are Our Models of Ourselves?
What Are Our Models of the World?
What Are Our Models of Relationships?
How Good Are Our Models?
Mental Abilities and Navigating the World
What Is A Mental Ability?
What Are Some Major Intelligences and Mental Abilities?
Are There Additional Intelligences and Mental Abilities?
What Is The Relation Between Personality and Intelligence?
How Does Personality Express its Abilities?
The Conscious Self
What Is the Conscious Self?
What Does it Mean for the Self to Be Conscious?
Does the Self Possess Free Will?
Are There Alternatives to the Conscious Self?
How Is the Conscious Self Expressed?
Personality Organization
How the Parts of Personality Fit Together
What Is Personality Structure?
How Are Personality Traits Structured?
What Are Structural Models of Awareness and Why Do They Matter?
Can Identifying Key Functional Areas Help Develop Structural Models of Personality?
What Are the Structural Connections from Personality to the Environment?
Do Structures Matter?
Dynamics of Action
What Are Dynamics of Action?
Which Need Will Begin Action?
How Does Action Develop in the Mind?
How Are Acts Performed?
Dynamics of Self-Control
What Are Dynamics of Self-Control?
How Does Self-Control Occur?
Is Self-Control Always Conscious?
How Do We Deal with the Pain of Falling Short?
How is Self Control (Or its Absence) Expressed?
Personality Development
Personality Development in Childhood and Adolescence
What is Personality Development?
Do Infants Have a Personality?
How Does the Young Child's Personality Develop?
What Are the Challenges of Middle Childhood?
What Are Adolescents Doing?
Personality Development in Adulthood
What Is the Nature of Adult Development?
What Are Young Adults Like?
How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood?
Where Is Personality Headed In the Concluding Parts of Life?
Concluding Materials
Full Table Of Contents
Prefatory Materials
Contents in Brief
Contents
Preface for Students
Preface for Instructors
Acknowledgements
About the Author
Examining Personality
What is Personality?
What Are the Fundamental Questions Addressed by Personality Psychology?
Big Questions and Science
Questions and Inquiry
Who Am I?
How and Why Are People Different?
What Will My Future Be?
Different Kinds of Answers
What Is the Personality System?
A System of Systems
Defining Personality
Locating the Personality System
What Is the Field of Personality Psychology?
What Is a Field of Science?
The Emergence of Modern Personality Psychology (1890-1949)
Evolving Viewpoints on the Field (1950 to the Present)
Training and Research in Personality Psychology
Why Study Personality Psychology?
The "Who Am I" Question - A Part of Scientific Inquiry
The "How and Why Are People Different?" Question -- Asked in Personality Assessment
The "What Is My Future" Question -- Prediction, Selection, and Change
How Is This Book Organized -- And What Will You Learn?
Some Cautions, and a Beginning
Personality Psychology's Answers
Identifying Personality
Parts of Personality
Personality Organization
Personality Development
Boxes
Casual Thinking and Scientific Thinking about Personality
Does Becoming a Personality Psychologist Influence How You View Others?
Careers of Two Psychologists
What Does Personality Psychology Offer Other Fields?
Research in Personality Psychology
Where Do the Data Come From?
Olympian Issues
The Life Sphere and External (Life) Data
Observer Data
Test, Questionnaire, and Interview Data
What Research Designs are Used in Personality?
Types of Research Designs
The Case Study Method
The Method of Observationism
The Correlational Research Design
Natural Experiments
True Experimental Designs
What Does it Mean to Measure Personality?
The Psychometric Approach
Reliability
Validity
How Do Psychologists Study Many Personality Variables Together?
Multiple Variables and Multivariate Techniques
The Logic of Factor Analysis
Reading the Results of a Factor Analysis
A Critique of Factor Analysis
Boxes
Are Self-Judgments or an Observers' Judgments more Accurate?
Freud's Case of Emmy Von N
Funder's Laws
The Measurement of Length in the Physical Sciences
Perspectives on Personality
What are Perspectives on Personality?
Frameworks, Perspectives, Theories
Perspectives on Personality
Personality Theories
Micro-Theories and Research
What is the Biological Perspective?
Evolutionary Theory Views the Person
Natural and Sexual Selection
A Micro-Theory about Jealousy and Evolution
Biopsychology Views the Person
The Nervous System and Its Influences on Psychology
A Micro-Theory that Traits are Inherited
What is the Intrapsychic Perspective?
The Trait Psychologist Views the Person
The Nature of Traits and their Role in Personality
A Micro-Theory about Central Personality Traits
Psychodynamic Theory Views the Person
Defenses, Mental Models, and the Role of Dynamics
A Micro-Theory of Hidden Sexual Desire
What is the Sociocultural Perspective?
The Social-Cognitive View of the Person
The Person and Environment in Interaction
A Micro-Theory of Conditional Aggression
The Cross-Cultural View of the Person
A Micro-Theory of Collectivism Versus Individualism
What is the Temporal-Developmental Perspective?
A Psychosocial Stage Theory and Development
A Micro-Theory of the Emergence of Traits
The Humanistic and Positive Psychology Views of the Person
A Micro-Theory of Empathy and Psychotherapy
How Does One Cope with Multiple Theories?
Which Theory is Right?
The Systems Approach
Boxes
The Use of Psychiatric Drugs to Improve Personality
The Case of the Mathematician in the Guestroom
Smith and Glass's Comparison of Psychotherapies Using Different Perspectives
Translating One Perspective Into Another
Parts Of Personality
Motivation and Emotion
What Are Motives?
Motives, Instincts and Needs
Projective Measures of Motives
Types of Motives
Self-Report of Motives
How Are Motives Expressed?
The Achievement Motive and its Relation to Personality
The Power Motive and Personality
The Affiliation Motive and Personality
The Sex Drive and Related Motives
Personal Strivings and Goals
What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important?
The Motivation-Emotion Connection
Emotions as an Evolved Signal System
Cross-Cultural Issues
Emotional States, Moods, and Emotion- Related Traits
What Are the Emotional Traits and How Are They Expressed?
The Two-Factor Approach to Measuring Emotion
Affect Intensity
From Emotional States to Emotion-Related Traits
How Are Emotional Traits Expressed?
What Are Happy People Like?
Natural Happiness
Demographic Influences
The Most Happy Students
Boxes
Jon Krakauer and the Uneasy Fulfillment of a Boyhood Dream
The Projective Hypothesis of Shakespeare
Achievement Motivation and Economic Progress
Replicating Ekman's Results
Positioning the Emotional Dimensions of Inner Space
Interior Selves; Interior Worlds
What are Mental Models?
Mental Models and their Structure
Mental Models are (Usually) Learned and Applied
Differences in Models across People
What Are Our Models of Ourselves?
The Self and Self-Models
Possible, Actual, and... Perhaps... Unconscious Selves
Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy
Stories of the Self
What Are Our Models of the World?
Formal Models and Implicit Models
Implicit Knowledge
Learning Personality Types
Implicit Theories of Personality
The Concept of the Archetype
What Are Our Models of Relationships?
Significant Other Models
Core Conflictual Relationship Themes
Roles and Role Playing
Morals and Values
How Good Are Our Models?
Developing Constructive Models
Avoiding Irrational Models
Expressing Better Models
Boxes
The International Society for Self and Identity (ISSI)
Markus and Nurius: Possible Selves in College Students
World Knowledge in the Field of Artificial Intelligence
Playing a Role While Playing Basketball?
Mental Abilities and Navigating the World
What Is A Mental Ability?
Questions about Mental Ability
Mental Abilities and Society
The Range of Mental Abilities: Three Examples
What Are Some Major Intelligences and Mental Abilities?
Verbal-Propositional Intelligence and Mental Development
Uncovering More Cognitive Intelligences
Are There Additional Intelligences and Mental Abilities?
Social Abilities and Related Intelligences
Practical Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
Measuring Creativity
The Theory of "g"
What Is The Relation Between Personality and Intelligence?
Personality Calls on Abilities
The Relations among Mental Ability Traits and Other Traits
Personality, Mental Abilities, and the Construction of Mental Models
How Does Personality Express its Abilities?
Intelligence in the Expression of Thought
Intelligences at School
Intelligences and Mental Abilities at Work
Intelligences in Relationships
Personality and Mental Abilities: The Big Picture
Boxes
Francis Galton's Own Intelligence
Alfred Binet's Rough Start
Emotional Intelligence
Valued Qualities and Social Meritocracies
The Conscious Self
What Is the Conscious Self?
The Appearance of the Conscious Self
James' Self-as-Knower
Freud's Concept of the Ego
The Dialogical Self
What Does it Mean for the Self to Be Conscious?
What Is Consciousness?
Scientific Accounting for the Feeling of Consciousness
Is Consciousness of Recent Origin?
The Brain and Consciousness
Does the Self Possess Free Will?
The Appearance of Will
The Free-Will - Determinism Debate
Freedom from the Free-Will Debate
Voluntary Cause and Control
Are There Alternatives to the Conscious Self?
Agencies
Alters
The Unconscious, Id, and Superego
How Is the Conscious Self Expressed?
Contents of Consciousness
The Structure of Consciousness and Flow
Levels of Consciousness
Self-Determination Theory
Self-Control: A First Look
Boxes
The Idea of Free Will: Origins in Western Religious Thought
Some Personality Psychologists Don't Like the Denial of Free Will
Is There a Biophysics of Free Will?
An Example of Flow in Adolescence
Brain Correlates of Higher Consciousness
Personality Organization
How the Parts of Personality Fit Together
What Is Personality Structure?
Personality Structure Described
Why Is Personality Structure Important?
There Exist Multiple Personality Structures
Personality Structure Provides Organization
How Are Personality Traits Structured?
The Big Two and the Big Three
The Big Five
The Big Six and Other Considerations
What Are Structural Models of Awareness and Why Do They Matter?
Rationale for Structural Models of Awareness
Consciousness and How Things Become Conscious
The No Access Unconscious, or Unconscious Proper
The Implicit or Automatic Unconscious
The Unnoticed Unconscious
The Dynamic Unconscious
Can Identifying Key Functional Areas Help Develop Structural Models of Personality?
The Id, Ego, and Superego as a Processing-Area Model
The Trilogy and Quaternity of Mind
A Brain to Match?
Integration in the Systems Set
What Are the Structural Connections from Personality to the Environment?
Structures of Social Interaction
Using Structural Dimensions to Fill in Personality
Extending Personality to the Life Space
Do Structures Matter?
Revisiting the Organization of Traits
Traits of the Life Space
Structure and the Description of the Person
From Structures to Dynamics
Boxes
More on Christopher Langan and his Life
Does the Big Five Count as a Personality Structure?
If There Are Structural Areas, What Are the Boundaries Between them Like?
Was that Octopus You Saw Last Night Shy?
Dynamics of Action
What Are Dynamics of Action?
Approaching Dynamics
Dynamic Traits and Micro Dynamics
Mid-Level (Meso-) and Macro-Level Dynamics
Dynamics and their Change
Which Need Will Begin Action?
Urges, Needs, and Presses
Needs and their Relative Strengths
Determinant Needs and Subsidiary Needs
Needs and Need Conflicts
Need Fusion
How Does Action Develop in the Mind?
Motivation, Emotion, and Mood-Congruent Thought
The Dynamic Lattice
From Thought to Action
Partial Expressions and Slips of the Tongue
How Are Acts Performed?
The Communication Channels
Conscious and Automatic Forms of Action
Latent Versus Manifest Content
Stagecraft and Self-Presentation
Symbolic Interactionism and Social Alignment
The Urge and the Situation
Boxes
The Mysterious Social Activities of Robert Leuci
Computer Models of Personality Dynamics
Greenwald's Studies of Subliminal Perception and Motivation
Deception in Myth and Literature
Dynamics of Self-Control
What Are Dynamics of Self-Control?
How Dynamics of Self-Control are Distinctive
The Need for Self-Control
Aims of Self-Control
How Does Self-Control Occur?
The Self in Self Control
The Problem of the Egotistical Ego
Feedback and the Feedback Loop
Personal Control as a Hierarchy of Feedback Loops
Kelly's Circumspection-Preemption-Control Cycle
The Search For - and Effect of - Feedback
Levels of Action and Behavioral Identification
Bottom-Up Control?
Is Self-Control Always Conscious?
Automatic Control and Dissociation
Dissociation and the Unconscious
Divided Consciousness and Hypnosis
Dissociation and the Hypnotic State
Individual Differences in Dissociation
Positive Affirmations
How Do We Deal with the Pain of Falling Short?
Falling Short and Mental Defense
Suppression
Repression
Specific Defense Mechanisms
How is Self Control (Or its Absence) Expressed?
The Search for Self Control
Control versus Impulsiveness
Implications of Self-Control
Boxes
An Example of Divided Consciousness
A Brief History of Hypnosis
Cybernetics, Personality, and Robots
The New Research on Developing Self-Control
Personality Development
Personality Development in Childhood and Adolescence
What is Personality Development?
Questions of Personality Development
Dividing the Life Span
Research Designs in Developmental Studies
Do Infants Have a Personality?
The Infant's Challenge
Infant Temperament
Attachment Patterns
How Does the Young Child's Personality Develop?
The Young Child's Self-Concept
Self-Control as a Part of Temperament
Parents and the Family Context
Family Size and Birth Order
The Gendered World
What Are the Challenges of Middle Childhood?
Middle Childhood's Challenges and Self Concept
From Temperament to Traits
Overcontrolled, Undercontrolled, and Flexible Children
Friendship Patterns
What Are Adolescents Doing?
Puberty and the Changing Self-Concept
Sexual and Sex-Role Development
Establishing Identity in Adolescence
Boxes
Jay's Self Understanding
Cultural Influences on Child Personality
Does What Parents Do Matter?
Childhood Patterns and Experimentation with Drugs
Personality Development in Adulthood
What Is the Nature of Adult Development?
Questions of Adult Development
The Transition to Adulthood
Temperament and Traits: From Childhood through Adulthood
Models of the Self and World
What Are Young Adults Like?
The Tasks of Young Adulthood
Finding a Desirable Partner
In Search of Good Work
How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood?
Staying Married
Finding Occupational Success
Personality and Health
Who Adjusts Course?
No Regrets?
Helson's Typology of Growth
Where Is Personality Headed In the Concluding Parts of Life?
Optimal Personality and Values
Good Functioning
Adding Strengths: Positive Psychology
Strengths in Context
Optimal Types
A Final Life Review
Boxes
How Consistent is Steven Reid's Personality?
Identical Twins Reared Apart
Personality and the Future
Abraham Maslow's Early Life and his Theory of Self-Actualization
Concluding Materials
Postscript
References

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