Research Design in Clinical Psychology

ISBN-10: 0205332927

ISBN-13: 9780205332922

Edition: 4th 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Alan E. Kazdin
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Description: In this successful text, Kazdin describes research methods in psychology and provides criteria for conducting and evaluating clinical research. This text's emphasis is on clinical psychology, but the issues and methods it discusses are relevant to counseling, school psychology and psychiatry. The various stages of research are discussed, with an emphasis on the special demands that are placed on the investigator. Research Design in Clinical Psychology continues to explain how methodology is an approach toward problem solving, thinking, and acquiring knowledge. This revised edition includes several new topics, as well as an expansion of core topics from the previous edition, which reflect the evolving nature of methodology and the proliferation of clinical research into many topic areas. Students and clinicians will gain a thorough knowledge of the entire research process from developing the idea, selecting methods, analyzing the results, and preparing the written scientific report. To ensure that the book conveys practices concretely, many examples are presented both from research and from everyday life. More attention has been given to specific methodological practices intended to address principles and issues when designing a study.

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Book details

List price: $233.60
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/8/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 524
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Preface
About the Author
Introduction
Methodology and Research Design
Overview
Tasks of Research
Key Concepts Underlying Methodology
Parsimony
Plausible Rival Hypotheses
Findings versus Conclusions
Philosophy of Science, Research Methodology, and Statistical Inference
Characteristics of Research in Clinical Psychology
The "Psychology" of Research Methodology
Overview of the Book
Drawing Valid Inferences I: Internal and External Validity
Types of Validity
Internal Validity
Threats to Internal Validity
General Comments
External Validity
Threats to External Validity
General Comments
Perspectives on Internal and External Validity
Plausibility and Parsimony
Priority of Internal Validity
Summary and Conclusions
Drawing Valid Inferences II: Construct and Statistical Conclusion Validity
Construct Validity
Threats to Construct Validity
General Comments
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Overview of Essential Concepts
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
General Comments
Experimental Precision
Holding Constant versus Controlling Sources of Variation
Tradeoffs
Summary and Conclusions
Sources of Artifact and Bias
Sources of Bias
Rationales, Scripts, and Procedures
Experimenter Expectancy Effects
Experimenter Characteristics
Situational and Contextual Cues
Subject Roles
Data Recording and Analysis
Subject-Selection Biases
The Sample: Who Is Selected for the Study?
Attrition: Who Remains in the Study?
Summary and Conclusions
Selection of the Research Problem and Design
Research Ideas
Sources of Ideas
Levels of Understanding and the Focus of the Study
Theory as a Guide to Research
Definition and Scope
Why Theory Is Needed
Generating versus Testing Hypotheses
From Ideas to Operations
Operational Definitions
Multiple Operations to Represent Constructs
Discrepancies among Definitions
General Comments
Variables to Investigate
Types of Variables
Investigation of Multiple Variables
Research Design Options
Types of Research
Design Strategies
Conditions of Experimentation
Time Frame for Research
Summary and Conclusions
Experimental Research: Group Designs
Subject Selection
Random Selection
Who Will Serve as Subjects and Why?
Subject Assignment and Group Formation
Random Assignment
Group Equivalence
Matching
Mismatching
Selected Group Designs
Pretest--Posttest Control Group Design
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
Solomon Four-Group Design
Factorial Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Multiple-Treatment Designs
Crossover Design
Multiple-Treatment Counterbalanced Design
Considerations in Using the Designs
Summary and Conclusions
Control and Comparison Groups
Control Groups
No-Treatment Control Group
Waiting-List Control Group
No-Contact Control Group
Nonspecific-Treatment or "Attention-Placebo" Control Group
Routine or Standard Treatment
Yoked Control Group
Nonrandomly Assigned or Nonequivalent Control Group
Key Considerations in Group Selection
Progression of Control and Comparison Groups: Evaluating Psychotherapy
Treatment-Package Strategy
Dismantling-Treatment Strategy
Constructive-Treatment Strategy
Parametric-Treatment Strategy
Comparative-Treatment Strategy
Treatment-Moderator Strategy
Treatment-Mediator Strategy
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Assessing the Impact of the Experimental Manipulation
Checking on the Experimental Manipulation
Types of Manipulations
Utility of Checking the Manipulation
Interpretive Problems in Checking the Manipulation
Varied Data Patterns
Special Issues and Considerations
Assessment Issues
The Influence of Nonmanipulated Variables
Excluding Subjects in the Data Analyses
Establishing Potent Manipulations
Summary and Conclusions
Observational Research: Case-Control and Cohort Designs
Case-Control Designs
Cross-Sectional Design
Retrospective Design
Considerations in Using Case-Control Designs
Cohort Designs
Single-Group Cohort Design
Multigroup Cohort Design
Accelerated, Multicohort Longitudinal Design
Considerations in Using Cohort Designs
Critical Issues in Designing and Interpreting Observational Studies
Specifying the Construct
Selecting Groups
Time Line and Causal Inferences
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
The Case Study and Single-Case Research Designs
The Case Study
The Value of the Case Study
Illustrations
Limitations of the Case Study
Single-Case Experimental Designs: Key Characteristics
Continuous Assessment
Baseline Assessment
Stability of Performance
Major Experimental Design Strategies
ABAB Designs
Multiple-Baseline Designs
Changing-Criterion Designs
General Comments
Data Evaluation in Single-Case Research
Criteria for Visual Inspection
Problems and Considerations
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Evaluation of the Single Case in Clinical Work
Quasi-Experiments with the Single Case
What to Do to Improve the Quality of Inferences
Design Variations
Case Illustrations
Methods for Assessment and Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Steps for Evaluation in Clinical Work
Case Illustration
Issues and Limitations
Summary and Conclusions
Qualitative Research Methods: An Overview
Key Characteristics
Background
Definition and Core Features
Contrast of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Methods and Analyses
The Data for Qualitative Analysis
Drawing Valid Inferences
Generality of the Results
Illustrations
Inner-City Youth Who Cease to Commit Crimes
Gender, Power, and Who Gets the Remote Control during TV Time
Single Women and Their Experience
Parents' Experience in Treatment for Their Children
General Comments
Contributions of Qualitative Research
Summary and Conclusions
Assessment Methods and Strategies
Selecting Measures for Research: Key Considerations
Construct Validity
Psychometric Characteristics
Sensitivity of the Measure
General Comments
Using Available Measures or Devising New Measures
Using a Standardized Measure
Varying the Use or Contents of an Existing Measure
Developing a New Measure
General Comments
Modalities and Methods of Assessment
Global Ratings
Self-Report Inventories, Questionnaires, and Scales
Projective Techniques
Direct Observations of Behavior
Psychobiological Measures
Computerized Assessment
General Comments
Unobtrusiveness and Reactivity of Psychological Measures
Nature of the Problem
Potential Solutions with Traditional (Obtrusive) Measures
Unobtrusive Measures
Simple Observation
Observation in Contrived Situations
Archival Records
Physical Traces
General Comments
Measurement Strategies and Issues
Use of Multiple Measures
Interrelations of Different Measures
Summary and Conclusions
Assessment and Evaluation of Interventions
Assessing Clinical Significance of the Changes
Comparison Methods
Subjective Evaluation
Social Impact Measures
General Comments
Scope and Breadth of the Changes
Characteristics of the Treatment
Disseminability of Treatment
Cost
Acceptability of Treatment
Assessment During the Course of Treatment
Pre-Post and Continuous Assessment
Evaluating the Mechanisms of Change
Follow-up Assessment
Attrition
Practical Assessment Decisions and Options
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Statistical Methods of Data Evaluation
Significance Tests and the Null Hypothesis
Overview
Significance Level (alpha)
Power
Ways to Increase Power
Data Analyses and Designing the Study
Special Topics in Data Analysis
Intent-to-Treat Analysis
Analyses Involving Multiple Comparisons
Multiple Outcomes: Multivariate and Univariate Analyses
Objections to Statistical Significance Testing
Major Concerns
Misinterpretations
Significance Testing and Failures to Replicate
Alternatives or Supplements to Tests of Significance
Magnitude and Strength of Effect
Confidence Intervals
Meta-Analysis
Statistical Significance, Magnitude of Effect, and Clinical Significance
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Interpretation of the Data
Interpreting the Results of a Study
Overview
Common Leaps in Language and Conceptualization of the Findings
More Data Analyses Can Enhance Data Interpretation
General Comments
Negative Results or No-Difference Findings
Ambiguity of Negative Results
When Negative Results Are Interpretable
When Negative Results Are Important
Replication
Types of Replication
Importance of Replication
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Ethical Issues and Guidelines for Research
Contemporary Context and Scope of the Issues
Critical Issues in Research
Deception
Debriefing
Invasion of Privacy
Informed Consent
Conditions and Elements
Consent Forms
Letter and Spirit of Consent
Intervention Research Issues
Informing Clients about Treatment
Withholding the Intervention
Control Groups and Treatments of Questionable Efficacy
Consent and the Interface with Threats to Validity
General Comments
Ethical Guidelines for Research Practices
Ethical Issues and Scientific Integrity
Fraud in Science
Allocation of Credit
Sharing of Materials and Data
Conflict of Interest
Guiding Principles and Responsibilities
Summary and Conclusions
Publication and Communication of Research Findings
Publication Process: An Overview
Methodologically Informed Manuscript Preparation
Overview
Main Sections of the Article
Questions to Guide Manuscript Preparation
General Comments
Summary and Conclusions
Closing Comments: Methodology in Perspective
Goals of Methodology
Substantive Contribution of Methodology
Final Word: Abbreviated Guidelines for a Well-Designed Study
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
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