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Writing Effective Use Cases

ISBN-10: 0201702258
ISBN-13: 9780201702255
Edition: 2001
List price: $56.99 Buy it from $3.00
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Description: Use cases have never been this easy to understand -- or this easy to create! In Writing Effective Use Cases, Alistair Cockburn offers a hands-on, soup-to-nuts guide to use case development, based on the proven concepts he has refined through years  More...

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Book details

List price: $56.99
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Addison Wesley Professional
Publication date: 10/5/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 304
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.418

Use cases have never been this easy to understand -- or this easy to create! In Writing Effective Use Cases, Alistair Cockburn offers a hands-on, soup-to-nuts guide to use case development, based on the proven concepts he has refined through years of research, development, and seminar presentations. Cockburn begins by answering the most basic questions facing anyone interested in use cases: "What does a use case look like? When do I write one?" Next, he introduces each key element of use cases: actors, stakeholders, design scope, goal levels, scenarios, and more. Writing Effective Use Cases contains detailed guidelines, formats, and project standards for creating use cases -- as well as a detailed chapter on style, containing specific do's and don'ts. Cockburn shows how use cases fit together with requirements gathering, business processing reengineering, and other key issues facing software professionals. The book includes practice exercises with solutions, as well as a detailed appendix on how to use these techniques with UML. For all application developers, object technology practitioners, software system designers, architects, and analysts.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
What Is a Use Case (More or Less)?
Buy Stocks over the Web
Get Paid for Car Accident
Register Arrival of a Box
Your Use Case Is Not My Use Case
Buy Something (Casual Version)
Buy Something (Fully Dressed Version)
Steve Adolph: "Discovering" Requirements in New Territory
Requirements and Use Cases
Use Cases as Project-Linking Structure
The "Hub-and-Spoke" model of requirements
When Use Cases Add Value
Manage Your Energy
Warm Up with a Usage Narrative
Usage Narative: Getting "Fast Cash"
Exercises
The Use Case Body Parts
The Use Case as a Contract for Behavior
Interactions between Actors with Goals
Actors Have Goals
An actor with a goal calls on the responsibilities of another
Goals Can Fail
Interactions Are Compound
A Use Case Collects Scenarios
Striped trousers: Scenarios succeed or fail
The striped trousers showing subgoals
Contract between Stakeholders with Interests
The SuD serves the primary actor, protecting offstage stakeholders
The Graphical Model
Actors and stakeholders
Behavior
Use Case as responsibility invocation
Interactions as composite
Scope
A Sample In/Out List
Functional Scope
The Actor-Goal List
A Sample Actor-Goal List
The Use Case Briefs
Sample Use Case Briefs
Design Scope
Design scope can be any size
Using Graphical Icons to Highlight the Design Scope
Design Scope Examples
Enterprise-to-System Examples
Add New Service (Enterprise)
Add New Service (Acura)
Many Computers to One Application
Enter and Update Requests (Joint System)
Add New Service (into Acura)
Note New Service Request (in BSSO)
Update Service Request (in BSSO)
Note Updated Request (in Acura)
Use case diagrams for Acura-BSSO
A combined use case diagram for Acura-BSSO
Nuts and Bolts Use Cases
Serialize Access to a Resource
Apply a Lock Conversion Policy
Apply an Access Compatibility Policy
Apply an Access Selection Policy
Make Service Client Wait for Resource Access
The Outermost Use Cases
Using the Scope-Defining Work Products
Exercises
Stakeholders and Actors
Stakeholders
The Primary Actor
Why Primary Actors Are Unimportant (and Important)
Actors versus Roles
Characterizing the Primary Actors
A Sample Actor Profile Table
Supporting Actors
The System Under Discussion
Internal Actors and White-Box Use Cases
Exercises
Three Named Goal Levels
Use case levels
User Goals (Blue, Sea-Level)
Two Levels of Blue
Summary Level (White, Cloud/Kite)
Operate an Insurance Policy+
The Outermost Use Cases Revisited
Subfunctions (Indigo/Black, Underwater/Clam)
Summarizing Goal Levels
Using Graphical Icons to Highlight Goal Levels
Finding the Right Goal Level
Finding the User's Goal
Raising and Lowering Goal Levels
Ask "why" to shift levels
A Longer Writing Sample: "Handle a Claim" at Several Levels
Handle a Claim (Business)
Evaluate Work Comp Claim
Handle a Claim (Systems) +
Register a Loss
Find a Whatever (Problem Statement)
Exercises
Preconditions, Triggers, and Guarantees
Preconditions
Minimal Guarantees
Success Guarantee
Triggers
Exercises
Scenarios and Steps
The Main Success Scenario
The Common Surrounding Structure
The Scenario Body
Action Steps
Guidelines
Use Simple Grammar
Show Clearly "Who Has the Ball"
Write from a Bird's Eye View
Show the Process Moving Forward
Show the Actor's Intent, Not the Movements
Include a "Reasonable" Set of Actions
A transaction has four parts
"Validate," Don't "Check Whether"
Optionally Mention the Timing
Idiom: "User Has System A Kick System B"
Idiom: "Do Steps x-y until Condition"
To Number or Not to Number
Exercises
Extensions
Extension Basics
The Extension Conditions
Brainstorm All Conceivable Failures and Alternative Courses
Make the Condition Say What Was Detected
Rationalize the Extensions List
Rollup Failures
Extension Handling
Indent Condition Handling
Failures within Failures
Creating a New Use Case from an Extension
Exercises
Technology and Data Variations
Technology variations using specialization in UML
Linking Use Cases
Sub Use Cases
Extension Use Cases
UML diagram of extension use cases
When to Use Extension Use Cases
Exercises
Use Case Formats
Formats to Choose From
Fully Dressed
Fully Dressed Use Case Template [name]
Casual
Actually Login (Casual Version)
One-Column Table
One-Column Table Format of a Use Case
Two-Column Table
Two-Column Table
RUP Style
Register for Courses
If-Statement Style
Occam Style
Diagram Style
The UML Use Case Diagram
Forces Affecting Use Case Writing Styles
Consistency
Complexity
Standards for Five Project Types
For Requirements Elicitation
Elicitation Template--Oble a New Biscum
For Business Process Modeling
Business Process Template--Symp a Carstromming
For Sizing the Requirements
Sizing Template--Burble the Tramling
For a Short, High-Pressure Project
High-Pressure Template: Kree a Ranfath
For Detailed Functional Requirements
Use Case Name--Nathorize a Permion
Conclusion
Exercise
Frequently Discussed Topics
When Are We Done?
On Being Done
Scaling Up to Many Use Cases
Say Less about Each One (Low-Precision Representation)
Create Clusters of Use Cases
CRUD and Parameterized Use Cases
CRUD Use Cases
Manage Reports
Save Report
Parameterized Use Cases
Business Process Modeling
Modeling versus Designing
Work from the Core Business
Core business black box
New business design in white box
Work from Business Process to Technology
New business design in white box (again)
New business process in black-box system use cases
Work from Technology to Business Process
Linking Business and System Use Cases
Rusty Walters: Business Modeling and System Requirements
The Missing Requirements
Precision in Data Requirements
Cross-linking from Use Cases to Other Requirements
Recap of Figure 1.1, "Hub-and-Spoke" model of requirements
Use Cases in the Overall Process
Use Cases in Project Organization
Organize by Use Case Titles
Sample Planning Table
Handle Use Cases Crossing Releases
Deliver Complete Scenarios
Use Cases to Task or Feature Lists
Capture Trade-In
Work List for Capture Trade-In
Use Cases to Design
A Special Note to Object-Oriented Designers
Use Cases to UI Design
Use Cases to Test Cases
Order Goods, Generate Invoice (Testing Example)
Main Success Scenario Tests (Good Credit Risk)
Main Success Scenario Tests (Bad Credit Risk)
The Actual Writing
A Branch-and-Join Process
Time Required per Use Case
Collecting Use Cases from Large Groups
Andy Kraus: Collecting Use Cases from a Large, Diverse Lay Group
Use Case Briefs and Extreme Programming
Mistakes Fixed
No System
No Primary Actor
Too Many User Interface Details
Very Low Goal Levels
Purpose and Content Not Aligned
Advanced Example of Too Much UI
Research a Solution--Before
Research Possible Solutions--After
Reminders for the Busy
Reminders for Each Use Case
A Use Case Is a Prose Essay
Make the Use Case Easy to Read
Just One Sentence Form
"Include" Sub Use Cases
Who Has the Ball?
Get the Goal Level Right
Ask "why" to shift levels
Keep the GUI Out
Two Endings
Stakeholders Need Guarantees
Preconditions
Pass/Fail Tests for One Use Case
Pass/Fail Tests for One Use Case
Reminders for the Use Case Set
An Ever-Unfolding Story
Both Corporate Scope and System Scope
Core Values and Variations
Quality Questions across the Use Case Set
Reminders for Working on the Use Cases
It's Just Chapter 3 (Where's Chapter 4?)
Work Breadth First
Work expands with precision
The 12-Step Recipe
Know the Cost of Mistakes
Blue Jeans Preferred
Handle Failures
Job Titles Sooner and Later
Actors Play Roles
The Great Drawing Hoax
"Mommy, I want to go home."
Context diagram in ellipse figure form
Actor-Goal List for Context Diagram
The Great Tool Debate
Project Planning Using Titles and Briefs
Appendices
Use Cases in UML
Ellipses and Stick Figures
UML's Includes Relation
Drawing Includes
Draw Higher Goals Higher
UML's Extends Relation
Drawing Extends
Draw Extending Use Cases Lower
Use Different Arrow Shapes
Correct Use of Extends
Three interrupting use cases extending a base use case
Extension Points
UML's Generalizes Relations
Correct Use of Generalizes
Drawing Generalizes
Draw General Goals Higher
Hazards of Generalizes
Hazardous generalization--closing a big deal
Correctly closing a big deal
Subordinate versus Sub Use Cases
Drawing Use Case Diagrams
User Goals in a Context Diagram
Supporting Actors on the Right
Write Text-based Use Cases Instead
Answers to (Some) Exercises
Chapter 3, page 51
Exercise 3.1
Exercise 3.2
Design scopes for the ATM
Chapter 4, page 60
Exercise 4.2
Exercise 4.3
Chapter 5, page 79
Exercise 5.1
Exercise 5.2
Chapter 6, page 85
Exercise 6.1
Exercise 6.4
Chapter 7, page 98
Exercise 7.1
Exercise 7.2
Exercise 7.4
Use the Order Processing System
Chapter 8, page 110
Exercise 8.1
Exercise 8.5
Buy Stocks Over the Web
Chapter 11, page 138
Exercise 11.1
Perform Clean Spark Plugs Service
Glossary
Main Terms
Use Case Types
Diagrams
Readings
Books Referenced in the Text
Articles Referenced in the Text
Useful Online Resources
Index

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