Urban World

ISBN-10: 0199946043
ISBN-13: 9780199946044
Edition: 9th 2012
Authors: J. John Palen
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Description: Long the leading text in urban sociology,The Urban Worldcontinues to provide a comprehensive, balanced, up-to-date, cross-cultural look at cities and suburbs around the world. Offering a twenty-first century view of the changing urban scene, the  More...

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Book details

List price: $142.95
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/15/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.628
Language: English

Long the leading text in urban sociology,The Urban Worldcontinues to provide a comprehensive, balanced, up-to-date, cross-cultural look at cities and suburbs around the world. Offering a twenty-first century view of the changing urban scene, the text covers evolving urban patterns and the changing nature of urban life.Combining expert scholarship with an easy-to-understand style that students appreciate, J. John Palen is one of America's leading urban sociologists. He travels the world and adds new insights, gleaned firsthand, to each succeeding edition of his text.The Urban Worldcontinues to have a clear writing style with strong student appeal and enduring features such as strong academic content and an instructor-friendly organization. The book is also accompanied by a comprehensive test item file for qualified instructors.

J. John Palen is Professor Emeritus at Virginia Commonwealth University. He is the author of over a dozen books and has received the Virginia Commonwealth University Distinguished Scholar Award. He is a Distinguished Fulbright Chair and has held the Fulbright Chair in North American Studies at the University of Calgary.

List of Boxes
Preface
New to This Edition
Pedagogical Aids
Acknowledgments
Focus and Development
The Urban World
Introduction
The Process of Urbanization
Urban Growth
Megacities
The Urban Explosion
Defining Urban Areas
Urbanization and Urbanism
Urbanization
Urbanism
Organizing the Study of Urban Life
Concepts of the City
Urban Change and Confusion
Rural Simplicity versus Urban Complexity
Early Social Theories and Urban Change
European Theorists
The Chicago School
Summary
Review Questions
The Emergence of Cities
Introduction
The Ecological Complex
Political Economy Models
First Settlements
Agricultural Revolution
Population Expansion
Mesoamerica
Interactions of Population, Organization, Environment, and Technology
City Populations
Evolution in Social Organization
Division of Labor
Kingship and Social Class
Technological and Social Evolution
Urban Revolution
Survival of the City
The Hellenic City
Social Invention
Physical Design and Planning
Population
Diffusion of People and Ideas
Rome
Size and Number of Cities
Housing and Planning
Transportation
Life and Leisure
European Urbanization until the Industrial City
The Medieval Feudal System
Town Revival
Characteristics of Towns
Plague
Renaissance Cities
Industrial Cities
Technological Improvements and the Industrial Revolution
The Second Urban Revolution
Summary
Review Questions
American Urbanization
The Rise of Urban America
Introduction
Colonists as Town Builders
Major Settlements
New England
The Middle Colonies
The South
Canada
Colonial Urban Influence
Cities of the New Nation 1790-1860
Rapid Growth
Marketplace Centers
The Industrial City: 1860-1950
Technological Developments
Spatial Concentration
Twentieth-Century Dispersion
Political Life
Corruption and Urban Services
Political Bosses
Immigrants' Problems
Reform Movements
Urban Imagery
Ambivalence
Myth of Rural Virtue
Summary
Review Questions
Ecology and Political Economy Perspectives
Introduction
Development of Urban Ecology
Invasion and Succession
Criticisms of Ecology
Role of Culture
Burgess's Growth Hypothesis
Concentric Zones
Limitations
Sector and Multiple-Nuclei Models
Urban Growth Outside North America
The Postmodern City: The Los Angeles School
Political Economy Models
Political Economy Assumptions
Examples of the Political Economy Approach
The Baltimore Study
Urban Growth Machines
World Systems Theory and Globalization
Challenges
Summary
Review Questions
Metro and Edge City Growth
Introduction
Metropolitan Growth
In-Movement 1900 to 1950
Out-Movement 1950 into the 21st Century
Commuting and Communication
Canadian Urban Regions
Postindustrial Central Cities
Edge Cities
Edgeless and Private Edge Cities
Boomburgs
Suburban Business Growth
Malling of the Land
Malls and "Street Safety"
Nonmetropolitan Growth
Diffuse Growth
National Society
The Rise of the Sunbelt
Population and Economic Shifts
Regional Consequences
Sunbelt Problems
Movement to the Coasts
Summary
Review Questions
The Suburban Era
Introduction
Suburban Dominance
Emergence of Suburbs
The 19th Century
Electric Streetcar Era: 1890-1920
Annexation
Automobile Suburbs: 1920-1950
Mass Suburbanization: 1950-1990
Metro Sprawl: 1990-2010
Causes of Suburban Growth
Postwar Exodus
Non-Reasons
Contemporary Suburbia
Categories of Suburbs
Persistence of Characteristics?
Ethnic and Religious Variation
High-Income Suburbs
Gated Communities
Common-Interest Developments
Working-Class Suburbs
Commercial Definitions
Exurbs
Rurban Areas
Characteristics of Suburbanites
Suburban Poverty
The Myth of Suburbia
Minority Suburbanization
Suburban Diversity
Black Flight
Integration or Resegregation?
Latino Suburbanization
Asian Suburbanites
Summary
Review Questions
Metropolitan Life
Urban Culture and Lifestyles
Introduction
Social Psychology of Urban Life
Early Formulations
The Chicago School
"Urbanism as a Way of Life"
Reevaluation of Urbanism and Social Disorganization
Determinist Theory
Compositional Theory
Subcultural Theory
Characteristics of Urban Populations
Age
Gender
Race, Ethnicity, and Religion
Socioeconomic Status
Urban Lifestyles
Cosmopolites
Unmarried or Childless
Gay Households
Ethnic Villagers
Neighborhood Characteristics
Deprived or Trapped
A Final Note of Caution
Summary
Review Questions
The Social Environment of Metro Areas: Strangers, Crowding, Homelessness, and Crime
Introduction
Dealing with Strangers
Codes of Urban Behavior
Neighboring
Neighbors and Just Neighbors
Defining Community
Categories of Local Communities
Density and Crowding
Crowding Research
Practical Implications
Homelessness
Characteristics of the Homeless
Social Problems
Disappearing SRO Housing
Urban Crime
Crime and Perceptions of Crime
Broken Windows Theory
Crime and City Size
Crime and Male Youth
Crime and Race
Crime Variations within Cities
Crime in the Suburbs
Summary
Review Questions
Diversity: Women, Ethnics, and African Americans
Introduction
Women in Metropolitan Life
Female Domesticity
Gendered Organization of Residential Space
Feminist Housing Preferences
Cohousing and Downsizing
Current Housing Choices
Gendered Public Spaces
Workplace Changes
White Ethnic Groups
Immigration
First-Wave Immigrants
Second-Wave Immigrants
Third-Wave Immigrants
"Racial Inferiority" and Immigration
African Americans
Historical Patterns
Population Changes
Slavery in Cities
"Free Persons of Color"
Jim Crow Laws
"The Great Migration"
Moving South
Urban Segregation Patterns
Extent of Segregation
Housing Discrimination
21st-Century Diversity
The Economically Successful
The Disadvantaged
Summary
Review Questions
Diversity: Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans
Introduction
Fourth-Wave Immigrants
Recent Immigration Impact on Cities
Melting Pot or Cultural Pluralism
Latino Population
Legal Status
Growth
Diversity
Mexican Americans
Mexican Diversity
Education
Urbanization
Housing and Other Patterns
Political Involvement
Puerto Ricans
Asian Americans
A "Model Minority"?
Asian Residential Segregation
The Case of Japanese Americans
The Internment Camps
Japanese Americans Today
Native Americans
Nonurban Orientation
Movement to Cities
Summary
Review Questions
Metro Issues, Housing, Sprawl, and Planning
Cities and Change
Introduction
The Urban Crisis: Thesis
Urban Revival: Antithesis
A Political Economy Look at the Urban Crisis
21st-century City Developments
New Patterns
Central Business Districts
Mismatch Hypothesis
Downtown Housing
Fiscal Health
Crumbling Infrastructure
Neighborhood Revival
Gentrification
Government and Revitalization
Who Is Gentrifying?
Why Is Gentrification Taking Place?
Displacement of the Poor
Decline of Middle-Income Neighborhoods
Successful Working-Class Revival
Summary
Review Questions
Housing Policies, Sprawl, and Smart Growth
Introduction
Housing in the 21st Century
Mobility
Housing Costs
Changing Households
Changing Federal Role
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Programs
Subsidizing Segregation
Upper- and Middle-Class Housing Subsidies
Urban Redevelopment Policies
Critique of Urban Renewal
Phasing Out Public Housing
Urban Homesteading
Rent Vouchers: Section 8
HOPE VI Projects
Tax Credits
Designing for Safety
Growth Control
Suburban Sprawl
Auto-Driven Sprawl
Amount of Sprawl
Costs and Consequences
Smart Growth
Advantages
Legislation
Summary
Review Questions
Planning, New Towns, and New Urbanism
Introduction
Ancient Greece and Rome
Renaissance and Later Developments
American Planning
Washington, D.C.
19th-Century Towns
Early Planned Communities
Parks
The City Beautiful Movement
Tenement Reform
20th-century Patterns
The City Efficient
Zoning and Beyond
Master Plans to Equity Planning
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design
European Planning
Planning and Control of Land
Housing Priorities
Transportation
Urban Growth Policies
The Dutch Approach
New Towns
British New Towns
New Towns in Europe
American New Towns
Public-Built New Towns
Federal Support for New Towns
Private New Towns: Reston, Columbia, and Irving
Research Parks
New Urbanism or Traditional Neighborhood Developments
Celebration
Creating Community
Limitations
Summary
Review Questions
Worldwide Urbanization
Developing Countries
Introduction: The Urban Explosion
Megacities
Plan of Organization
Common or Divergent Paths?
Developing-Country Increases
Rich Countries and Poor Countries
Global Cities
Characteristics of Third World Cities
Youthful Age Structure
Multinationals
The Informal Economy
Squatter Settlements
Primate Cities
Overurbanization?
The 21st Century
Summary
Review Questions
Asian Urban Patterns
Introduction
Asian Cities
Indigenous Cities
Colonial Background Cities
India
Mumbai (Bombay)
Kolkata (Calcutta)
Prognosis
China
Treaty Ports
Urbanization Policies
Forced Movement from Cities
Rural to Urban Migration
Economic Boom
Shanghai
Beijing
Hong Kong
Japan
Extent of Urbanization
Current Patterns
Tokyo
Planning
Planned New Towns
Suburbanization
Southeast Asia
General Patterns
Singapore
Other Cities
Summary
Review Questions
African and Latin American Urbanization
Introduction
Africa
Challenges
Responses
Regional Variations
Urban Development
Early Cities
Colonial Period
Indigenous African Cities
Contemporary Patterns
Social Composition of African Cities
Ethnic and Tribal Bonds
Status of Women
Differences from the Western Pattern
Latin America: An Urban Continent
Spanish Colonial Cities
Colonial Organization
Physical Structure
Recent Developments
Urban Growth
Economic Change
Urban Characteristics
Crime
Shantytowns
Future of Settlements
Maquiladoras
Myth of Marginality
A Success Story
Summary
Review Questions
Conclusion: Toward the Urban Future
Recapitulation
Urban Concentration
Deconcentration
Issues and Challenges
Urban Funding
People versus Places
Changing Metropolitan Population
Suburban Development
Social Planning Approaches
Three Approaches to Social Planning
Social Planning and Technology
Planning for the Future City
Planned Utopias
Las Vegas
Quality-of-Life Planning
Smart Cities
Planning Metropolitan Political Systems
A Working City
Toward a Metropolitan Future
Summary
Review Questions
Name Index
Subject Index
About the Author

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