Pandemics

ISBN-10: 019989812X
ISBN-13: 9780199898121
Edition: 2012
Authors: Peter C. Doherty
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Description: From HIV to H1N1, pandemics pose one of the greatest threats to global health in the twenty-first century. Defined as epidemics of infectious disease across large geographic areas, pandemics can disseminate globally with incredible speed as humans  More...

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Book details

List price: $16.95
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/30/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 192
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.858
Language: English

From HIV to H1N1, pandemics pose one of the greatest threats to global health in the twenty-first century. Defined as epidemics of infectious disease across large geographic areas, pandemics can disseminate globally with incredible speed as humans and goods move faster than ever before. Whilevaccines, drugs, quarantine, and education can reduce the severity of many outbreaks, factors such as global warming, population density, and antibiotic resistance have complicated our ability to fight disease. Respiratory infections like influenza and SARS spread quickly as a consequence of modern,mass air travel, while unsafe health practices promote the spread of viruses like HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. In Pandemics: What Everyone Needs to Know, Nobel Prize-winning immunologist Peter C. Doherty addresses the history of pandemics and explores the ones that persist today. He considers what promotes global spread, the types of pathogens most present today and the level of threat they pose, and how tocombat outbreaks and mitigate their effects.Concise and informative, Pandemics will serve as the best compact consideration of this topic, written by a major authority in the field.

Acknowledgments
Abbreviations
Introduction
Infection and Immunity
What is the difference between a virus and a bacterium?
What is the difference between RNA and DNA?
Aren't viruses also much smaller than bacteria?
Why is it important to distinguish viruses from bacteria when discussing pandemics?
Are colds and flu caused by hundreds of viruses?
What exactly is a pathogen?
How does infection happen?
What is snot?
What is a horizontal infection? Is there another kind?
Are all virus and bacterial infections bad for us?
If there is a bacterial and protozoal "microbiome," is there also a "virome"?
What does "immunity" mean?
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Would you describe mAbs as drugs or vaccines?
What are vaccines?
Pandemics, Epidemics, and Outbreaks
What is the exact definition of pandemic?
Who declares a pandemic?
Was the H1N1 "swine flu" really so mild?
How does the WHO operate?
Should the pandemic classification system be refined?
How does a pandemic differ from an epidemic or an outbreak?
Do all pandemics involve infection?
What does the term "zoonosis" mean?
What is an endemic infection, and how does it differ from an epidemic infection?
Are plants also included in the world of pandemics?
In Summary
The SARS Warning
Why was SARS so scary?
How did SARS spread so quickly through hospitals?
What caused SARS and where did the pathogen come from?
Aside from "natural" reservoirs, are there other potential sources of SARS?
What steps were taken to stop the SARS outbreak?
Did the SARS experience have long-term effects, and what lessons were learned?
Tuberculosis and Influenza
Why should TB and influenza be considered together?
What is the current situation with TB?
Is multi-drug-resistant TB still an issue?
What is being done to combat the MDR TB threat?
Why might influenza remain the most obvious known pandemic threat?
What are the different kinds of influenza viruses?
What is antigenic shift and why is it so dangerous?
Are birds and pigs our main concern when it comes to catching the flu?
What was so special about the virus that caused the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic?
Is our capacity to counter influenza improving?
Are we making progress with flu vaccines?
Apart from vaccines, are there other products available to prevent infection?
How afraid should we be of influenza?
Fledermaus to Field Mouse
What's a fledermaus?
Is it unusual that fruit bats carry SARS?
Are the henipaviruses potential pandemic pathogens?
Is Ebola the scariest of all viruses?
What exactly is a hemorrhagic disease?
Are filoviruses the main cause of hemorrhagic fevers?
Virus Vectors
What is a vector?
What is WNV, and has it been around for very long?
WNV infects birds, horses, and humans-does it also multiply in mosquitoes?
What exactly is yellow fever virus?
What do we know about the global movements of arboviruses?
Do mosquitoes and ticks really carry needles?
What are the pandemic risks when it comes to these vectored viruses?
Single-Host Human Pathogens
Is an infection that is already widespread in humans likely to cause a pandemic?
What are noroviruses?
Are the noroviruses our only concern when it comes to the virus diarrheas?
What is intussusception?
Are there other ways of protecting against these viruses?
Apart from the hemorrhagic viruses, are cholera and typhoid the main causes of skin spots?
Is measles something that we should still be worried about?
Are there any other kinds of GI tract infections?
Is there a good hepatitis vaccine?
Are HepB and HepC the most dangerous of the hepatitis viruses?
Why is chronic hepatitis so dangerous?
Is it safe to have a blood transfusion?
Are any of these single-host human pathogens likely to cause pandemics?
HIV/AIDS
Is HIV still a concern?
Can what's happening now with HIV/AIDS be described as a pandemic?
Is there any improvement in the AIDS situation?
Where did this virus come from, and why didn't we see AIDS before 1981?
Was AIDS active much earlier in Africa?
Does the immune system fail totally when confronted with HIV?
How does HIV target the CD4+ T cell?
Do we yet have a vaccine for AIDS?
Will we ever have a vaccine for AIDS?
Has science failed us when it comes to HIV/AIDS?
What progress has been made in the last 25 years?
Could AIDS blow up in some way to cause an even bigger problem?
Once in the human body, can HIV ever be eliminated?
The Bottom Line
Mad Cows and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Has there ever been a mad cow or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease pandemic?
So what is spongiform encephalopathy?
If the TSEs are infections, what's the big mystery?
Did BSE originate from sheep scrapie?
What is "bone meal"?
Has anyone contacted vCJD from eating imported British beef?
Was there even the possibility of a BSE/vCJD pandemic?
Does the history of BSE/CJD raise other concerns?
Are the TSEs a pandemic risk?
Economics and the Human-Animal Equation
What type of pandemic infection causes the most economic damage?
Is a novel respiratory infection the only economic threat?
Will it be massively expensive if quarantine officials are suddenly faced with an emergency?
From a financial standpoint, does influenza remain our main concern?
Why is FMD so damaging?
Could there ever be a global FMD pandemic?
Has an animal virus ever been introduced deliberately into "virgin soil"?
Other than as a consequence of bioterrorism, is a veterinary pandemic likely?
Are animal and human pandemics dealt with very differently?
Can returning tourists be infected with something that transmits to animals?
Can imported animals infect humans?
Can humans be infected from imported animal or other products?
In Summary
Bioterrorism
Could sophisticated terrorists initiate a pandemic?
What about Saddam Hussein and his weapons of mass destruction?
Why is a rogue state more worrisome than a terrorist cell when it comes to biological weapons?
Why would smallpox potentially be used in bioterrorism?
What do we know about anthrax?
Can you envision other novel bioterror pandemic scenarios?
Is a bioterrorist-initiated pandemic unlikely?
Protecting Humanity from and during Pandemics
Is there anything that I can do personally to limit the possibility of a dangerous pandemic?
What if I become ill while traveling?
What if I develop symptoms after I return home?
Apart from being a responsible traveler, what else might I do?
Are there useful steps that I can take at the level of my local community?
How do I protect my family if a pandemic hits?
Does the idea of being "too clean" apply to pandemics?
Where do I look for help if I become infected during the course of a major pandemic?
The Bottom Line
Conclusions
Further Reading
Index

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