European Reformation

ISBN-10: 0199547858
ISBN-13: 9780199547852
Edition: 2nd 2012
Authors: Euan Cameron
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Description: Since its first appearance in 1991, The European Reformation has offered a clear, integrated, and coherent analysis and explanation of how Christianity in Western and Central Europe from Iceland to Hungary, from the Baltic to the Pyrenees splintered  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 3/1/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 608
Size: 9.10" wide x 6.00" long x 1.30" tall
Weight: 2.552
Language: English

Since its first appearance in 1991, The European Reformation has offered a clear, integrated, and coherent analysis and explanation of how Christianity in Western and Central Europe from Iceland to Hungary, from the Baltic to the Pyrenees splintered into separate Protestant and Catholic identities and movements. Catholic Christianity at the end of the Middle Ages was not at all a uniformly 'decadent' or corrupt institution: it showed clear signs of cultural vigour and inventiveness. However, it was vulnerable to a particular kind of criticism, if ever its claims to mediate the grace of God to believers were challenged. Martin Luther proposed a radically new insight into how God forgives human sin. In this new theological vision, rituals did not 'purify' people; priests did not need to be set apart fromthe ordinary community; the church needed no longer to be an international body.For a critical 'Reformation moment', this idea caught fire in the spiritual, political, and community life of much of Europe. Lay people seized hold of the instruments of spiritual authority, and transformed religion into something simpler, more local, more rooted in their own community. So were born the many cultures, liturgies, musical traditions and prayer lives of the countries of Protestant Europe.This new edition embraces and responds to developments in scholarship over the past twenty years. Substantially re-written and updated, with both a thorough revision of the text and fully updated references and bibliography, it nevertheless preserves the distinctive features of the original, including its clearly thought-out integration of theological ideas and political cultures, helping to bridge the gap between theological and social history, and the use of helpful charts and tables thatmade the original so easy to use.

List of Figures
List of Maps
Introduction: The Reformation and Europe
The Background
The Religion of the People of Europe
The Shared Religion of the Late Medieval West
The Mass of the People
The View from the Religious Elites
The Vulnerability of the Church
A Conflict of Responsibilities
Economic Problems
Abuse of Priestly Status
The 'Inflation' of Bureaucracy
The Personnel the Church Deserved?
'Reform' from within and its Limits
Reform from above: A Lost Cause?
Piecemeal Reforms: The Papacy, the Religious Orders
The 'Unreformable' Bishops and Secular Clergy
The Clich�s of Reform: Ideals and Decay
Challenges from outside and their Limits
Councils of the Church versus Popes?
Popes, Sovereigns, and 'National Churches'
The Laity against the Church?
A 'Lay Spirit' in Religion?
The Northern Renaissance and the Church
Heresy: An Alternative Church?
The Hussite Movements in Bohemia
Popular Lay Heresies
The Church and the Christian Soul
The Lifelong Cycle of Sin, Absolution, and Penance
Explaining How: Theologies of Justification
The Church: Holy, Authoritative, Sacrificial?
Conclusion: A Precarious Equilibrium
The Reformers and their Message
The 'Luther Affair' and its Context
Martin Luther's Public Career, 1517-22
Context and Catalysts
The Reformation Message Spreads and Diversifies: Switzerland and South Germany
The Conversions of the Reformers
Martin Luther: Development and Influences
The Non-Humanist Reformers
Humanist Reformers: Origins and Backgrounds
Humanist Reformers: Conversions
Rejections of Reform
The Older Generation
Some Italian 'Evangelicals'
The Reformers' Message: Salvation
The Human Race, Sin, and the Law
Faith, its Nature and Object
Justification
Regeneration
Predestination
Conclusion: An Assault on the Penitential Cycle
The Reformers' Message: Scripture
The Church and Scripture
Reading and Understanding the Bible
The Reformers' Message: The Church
The 'Community of the Faithful'
Sacrificing Priests to Preaching Ministers
Church and State
The Reformers' Message: Sacraments
Defining 'Sacraments'
Baptism: Seeking to Explain its Role
The Communion: A Bone of Contention
Rejecting the Rest
Conclusion: A Novel and Destructive Challenge
Establishing the Reformed Churches
Unsuccessful �Affiliations' to the Reformed Cause
The Petty Nobility of Germany
Communal Movements in Rural Germany
Self-Governing Towns and Cities
The Urban Reformation in Germany
The Reformation of the Urban Cantons of Switzerland
Introducing the New Ideas in the Cities
The City Councils become Arbiters
The Political Pressures: Coup d'�tat, Consensus, or Compulsion?
Demolishing the Old Order
Constructing the New Order
Unsuccessful Civic Reformation Movements
Principalities and Kingdoms
The German Princes
Kings, Nobles, and Bishops: The Scandinavian Kingdoms
Fragmented Kingdoms: Eastern-Central Europe
Partial Reformation: England before 1559
Reformations Delayed: France and Scotland before 1559
Motives for Establishing the Reformation?
Wealth and Power?
Appeal to Classes or Social Structures?
Answering a Spiritual Need?
Conclusion: Reformed Preaching Honours Lay Participation
Beyond the 'Reformation Moment': From Temporary Coalitions to Growing Communities
Voluntary, Gathered Movements Reject the 'Coalition'
Radicals and Anabaptists to 1535
Restructuring and Survival, 1535-C.1600
New 'Heresies' in Eastern Europe
Religious and Social Teaching
Crisis, Survival, and Compromise in Politics
German Politics to 1555
Political Theory: From Non-Resistance to Godly Rebellion
Teaching by Example: Martyrs and Warriors of the Gospel
Reformers at Odds: The 'Confessional' Reformation
Lutheran Controversies, c.1540-c.1580
Germany's 'Confessional' Movement, c. 1560-1600
Religion and Revolt: France and the Low Countries
The British Kingdoms, 1559-1603
Reformers and Laypeople: Building a Religious Culture
Protestant Ministers Become a 'Profession'
Instilling Correct Doctrine
New Standards of 'Piety' and 'Godliness'
The Reformation's Ambiguous Relationship with 'Popular Culture'
Laypeople's Responses
Conclusion
Abbreviations Used in the Notes
Notes
Suggestions for Further Reading
Index

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