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Radical Enlightenment Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

ISBN-10: 0199254567
ISBN-13: 9780199254569
Edition: 2002
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Description: Arguably the most decisive shift in the history of ideas in modern times was the complete demolition during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries - in the wake of the Scientific Revolution - of traditional structures of authority, scientific  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/12/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 832
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 2.024
Language: English

Arguably the most decisive shift in the history of ideas in modern times was the complete demolition during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries - in the wake of the Scientific Revolution - of traditional structures of authority, scientific thought, and belief, by the new philosophy and the philosophies, culminating in Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau. In this revolutionary process which effectively overthrew all justification for monarchy, aristocracy, slavery, and ecclesiastical authority, as well as man's asendancy over woman and theology's domination over education and study, substituting the modern principles of equality, democracy, and universality, the Radical Enlightenment played a crucially important part. Despite the present-day interest in the revolutions of the late eighteenth century, the origins and rise of the Radical Enlightenment have been astonishingly little studied, doubtless largely because if its very wide international sweep and the obvious difficulties of fitting it into the restrictive conventions of 'national history' which until recently tended to dominate all historiography. The greatest obstacle to the Radical Enlightenment finding its proper place in modern historical writing is simply that it was not French, British, German, Italian, Jewish or Dutch, but all of these at the same time. In this novel interpretation of the Radical Enlightenment down to La Mettrie and Diderot, two of its key exponents, particular stress is placed on the pivotal role of Spinoza and the widespread underground international philosophical movement known before 1750 as Spinozism.

Preface
Acknowledgements
List of Plates
List of Figures
List of Map and Tables
Abbreviations of Library and Archive Locations
Other Abbreviations
The 'Radical Enlightenment'
Introduction
Radical Thought in the Early Enlightenment
The 'Crisis of the European Mind'
Government and Philosophy
The Advent of Cartesianism
Cartesianism in Central Europe
The New Philosophy conquers Scandinavia and the Baltic
France: Philosophy and Royal Absolutism
Reaction in the Italian States
Society, Institutions, Revolution
Philosophy and the Social Hierarchy
Shaftesbury, Radicati, Vauvenargues
The Revolutionary Impulse
Women, Philosophy, and Sexuality
The Emancipation of Women
Conversational Freedom; Sexual Freedom
Censorship and Culture
French Royal Censorship
Philosophy and Censorship in Central Europe
Philosophy and Censorship in Southern Europe
Freedom of Thought, Expression, and of the Press
Libraries and Enlightenment
The Universal Library
The Crisis of the Universities
Shelving the Two Enlightenments
Lexicons and Dictionnaires
The Early Enlightenment in National Context
The Learned Journals
Changing Europe's Intellectual Culture
The Journals and the Radical Enlightenment
The Rise of Philosophical Radicalism
Spinoza
Van den Enden: Philosophy, Democracy, and Egalitarianism
Democratic Republicanism
Revolutionary Conspiracy
Radicalism and the People: The Brothers Koerbagh
The Theologian-Philosopher, Johannes Koerbagh (1634-1672)
The Bloemhof
The Trial of the Brothers Koerbagh
Philosophy, the Interpreter of Scripture
Lodewijk Meyer (1629-1681)
The Philosophia
The Wolzogen Disputes
The 'New Religion' of Philosophy
The Philosophia in England
German and Scandinavian Reverberations
Miracles Denied
Spinoza's System
Spinoza, Science, and the Scientists
Radical Thought and the Scientific Revolution
Spinoza and Huygens
Spinoza versus Boyle
Philosophy, Politics, and the Liberation of Man
In Search of 'Freedom'
Monarchy Overturned
Spinoza, Locke, and the Enlightenment Struggle for Toleration
Equality and the Quest for 'Natural Man'
Publishing a Banned Philosophy
The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
The Battle of the Ethics
The Spread of a Forbidden Movement
The Death of a Philosopher
Lucas, Saint-Glain, and The Hague Coterie
The Rise of Dutch Spinozism
Philopater
Dutch Radicalism at the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century
Europe and the 'New' Intellectual Controversies (1680-1720)
Bayle and the 'Virtuous Atheist'
The Bredenburg Disputes
Fontenelle and the War of the Oracles
The Death of the Devil
From Van Dale to Bekker
The Public Furore
Churches Divided
The European Diffusion
Leenhof and the 'Universal Philosophical Religion'
Frederik van Leenhof (1647-1713)
Heaven on Earth
The Politics of Philosophy
The Leenhof Controversy in the Netherlands, Germany, and the Baltic
The 'Nature of God' Controversy (1710-1720)
The Intellectual Counter-Offensive
New Theological Strategies
Theology and the Revolution in Bible Criticism
Physico-Theology
Le Clerc, Limborch, and Locke
From the 'Rationalization' to the 'Irrationalization' of Religion
The Collapse of Cartesianism
Empiricism
Deadlock in France
Regis and the Failure of French Cartesianism
Leibniz and the Radical Enlightenment
Early Encounters
Leibniz, Steno, and the Radical Challenge (1676-1680)
Leibniz and the 'War of Philosophies'
Anglomania: The 'Triumph' of Newton and Locke
Europe Embraces English Ideas
Locke, Newtonianism, and Enlightenment
The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal
Germany and the Baltic: the 'War of the Philosophers'
Deepening Philosophical Crisis
The Wolffian Controversies (1723-1740)
Wolff and the Rise of German Deism
Wolffianism versus Newtonianism in the Baltic
The Clandestine Progress of the Radical Enlightenment (1680-1750)
Boulainvilliers and the Rise of French Deism
French Refugee Deists in Exile
The Flight to Holland
Gueudeville and Lahontan
Antagonist of Voltaire: Saint-Hyacinthe (1684-1746)
The Marquis d'Argens (1703-1771)
The Spinozistic Novel in French
English Deism and Europe
The Deist Challenge
John Toland (1670-1722)
Anthony Collins (1676-1729)
Matthew Tindal (c.1657-1733)
Bernard Mandeville (1670-1733)
Germany: The Radical Aufklarung
Initial Reaction
Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708)
Friedrich Wilhelm Stosch (1648-1704)
Spinoza and Cabbala: Wachter and Spaeth
Theodor Ludwig Lau (1670-1740)
Schmidt and the Maturing of German Spinozism
Johann Christian Edelmann (1698-1767)
The Radical Impact in Italy
Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)
Paolo Mattia Doria (1662-1746)
Pietro Giannone (1676-1748)
Radical Thought in Venice
The Clandestine Philosophical Manuscripts
Categories
L'Esprit de Spinosa
Despotism, Islam, and the Politicization of Superstition
From La Mettrie to Diderot
Materialism
Diderot
Epilogue: Rousseau, Radicalism, Revolution
Bibliography
Index

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