Infectious Diseases in Primates Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

ISBN-10: 0198565852
ISBN-13: 9780198565857
Edition: 2006
List price: $83.00 Buy it from $61.13
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Book details

List price: $83.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/29/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 400
Size: 6.14" wide x 9.21" long x 0.85" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

� Charles L. Nunn is associate professor in the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. He is coeditor of Evolution of Sleep: Phylogenetic and Functional Perspectives and coauthor of Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution. ��

Questions, terminology, and underlying principles
Introduction
Essential terminology: parasite, disease, and disease risk
What is a parasite?
Parasite and disease
What is disease risk and how is it measured?
Ecological drivers of primate sociality
Between-group resource competition
Predation and within-group competition
Inter-sexual conflict
Infectious disease
Fitness consequences of parasites in wild primate populations
Organizational layout of this book
Diversity and characteristics of primate parasites
Introduction
Taxonomic diversity of parasites from wild primates
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Protozoa
Helminths
Arthropods
Strategies for parasite transmission
Host specificity and "multi-host" parasites
Virulence: negative effects of parasites on their hosts
Parasite transmission and manipulation of host behavior
Causes and consequences of altered behavior
Manipulation of primate hosts
Summary and synthesis
Primate socioecology and disease risk: predictions and rationale
Introduction
Background concepts
Encounter and infection probability
Formulating hypotheses at individual and comparative levels
Host traits and disease risk
Body mass, life history, and individual age
Host population size and density
Social organization, group size, and dominance rank
Reproduction, mating behavior, and sex differences
Ranging behavior, substrate use, and diet
Environmental factors and seasonality
Summary and synthesis
Host-parasite dynamics and epidemiological principles
Introduction
An historical perspective
Basic terminology and measures of infection
Analytical models of disease spread
Microparasites and compartment models
Macroparasite models
The role of parasites in regulating host populations
Theoretical predictions
Regulation in experimental and natural populations
Heterogeneities and dynamical complexities
Spatial heterogeneity: landscape features and metapopulation dynamics
Host social system
Multi-host dynamics
Summary and synthesis
Host defenses: the immune system and behavioral counterstrategies
Introduction
Responding to infections: strategies for parasite removal
Immune defenses
Physiological responses and sickness behaviors
Grooming as a means of parasite removal
Medicinal plant use
Preventing infections: strategies for parasite avoidance
Habitat use and ranging behavior
Diet
Avoidance of arthropod vectors and parasites
Parental care
Avoiding infected conspecifics
Parasite pressure, mate choice, and sexual selection
Direct benefits: selection of uninfected caregivers
Avoidance of directly transmitted parasites
Indirect benefits of mate choice
Parasite status, resistance, and signals for choosing mates
Summary and synthesis
Infectious disease and primate social systems
Introduction
Variation in primate social systems
Chains of transmission within and among primate groups
Disease risk and primate social systems
Group size and contagious infections
Group size, flying insects, and vector-borne infections
Group composition
Group spread and contact within groups
Dispersal among groups
Territoriality and range overlap
Mating systems, sexual behavior, and STDs
Mating promiscuity
Effect of reproductive skew
Testing effects of STD risk on primate mating systems
Impacts of host behavior on pathogen evolution
Evolution of virulence
Evolution of transmission strategies
Coevolution
Methodological approaches to study effects of parasites on host social systems
Fields studies
Directional tests using comparative methods
Incorporating parasites in comparative studies of sociality
Modelling approaches
Summary and synthesis
Parasites and primate conservation
Introduction
Parasites as a cause of wildlife declines
Emerging infectious diseases in primates and other wildlife
Disease risk and anthropogenic change
Habitat destruction and degradation
Reductions in host population size
Human impacts on parasite biology
Conservation efforts in response to infectious disease risk
Monitoring parasites in wild populations
Reserve design and management
Captive breeding and semi-free-ranging populations
Ecotourism and scientific field research
Direct intervention to reduce the impact of disease
Evolutionary considerations and host-parasite biodiversity
Summary and synthesis
From nonhuman primates to human health and evolution
Introduction
Origins and early history of infectious disease in humans
Infectious agents in early human societies
Epidemiological transitions and the rise of human pathogens
Human responses to infectious diseases: from Darwinian medicine to public health
Behavioral responses to infectious diseases
Evolution of immune defenses and resistance traits
Global patterns of disease risk among contemporary human societies
Wild primates and emerging diseases in humans
Summary and synthesis
Concluding remarks and future directions
Introduction
What is the diversity of parasites in wild primates?
Population biology and impacts of parasites in wild primates
Immune and behavioral defenses: tradeoffs against different infectious agents
What are the links between primate sociality and parasitism?
Are parasites a significant threat to primate conservation efforts?
From primates to understanding human-pathogen interaction
Concluding remarks
References
Index

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