Tribology on the Small Scale A Bottom up Approach to Friction, Lubrication, and Wear

ISBN-10: 0198526784
ISBN-13: 9780198526780
Edition: 2007
Authors: C. Mathew Mate
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Description: Friction, lubrication, adhesion, and wear are prevalent physical phenomena in everyday life and in many key technologies. This book explains how these tribological phenomena originate from atomistic and microscale physical phenomena and shows how  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/1/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 352
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

Friction, lubrication, adhesion, and wear are prevalent physical phenomena in everyday life and in many key technologies. This book explains how these tribological phenomena originate from atomistic and microscale physical phenomena and shows how this understanding can be used to solve macroscale tribology problems. The book is intended to serve both as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in tribology and as an introduction to the field for those scientists and engineers working with technologies where a good grasp of tribology is essential.

Professor Malcolm McDonald enjoys a global reputation as a leading authority on marketing. He was until recently Professor of Marketing and Deputy Director at Cranfield University School of Management, and is now an Emeritus Professor at the University as well as being an Honorary Professor at Warwick Business School. He has been consultant to many major companies from the United Kingdom, Europe, USA, Far East, South-East Asia, Australasia and Africa, in the areas of strategic marketing and marketing planning, market segmentation, key account management, international marketing and marketing accountability. Malcolm is also Chairman of six companies and works with the operating boards of some of the world's leading multinationals on all continents. He has written over 40 books including the best-selling Marketing Plans: How to prepare them, how to use them.

Introduction
Why is it called tribology?
Economic and technological importance of tribology
Some tribology success stories
Reducing automotive friction
MEMS and solving adhesion in Digital Micro-mirror Devices
Slider-disk interfaces in disk drives
A brief history of modern tribology
Scientific advances enabling nanoscale tribology
Breakthrough technologies relying on tribology at the small scale
Nanoimprinting
IBM's millipede for high density storage
Nanotechnology
References
Characterizing surface roughness
Types of surface roughness
Roughness parameters
Variations in Z-height
Asperity summits roughness parameters
Surface height distributions
Measuring surface roughness
Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
Example: Disk surfaces in disk drives
References
Mechanical properties of solids and real area of contact
Atomic origins of deformation
Elastic deformation
Basic relations
Elastic deformation of a single asperity
Approximating a single asperity contact
Elastic contact area for a sphere on a flat
Example: Spherical steel particle sandwiched between two flat surfaces
Plastic deformation
Basic relations
Hardness
Real area of contact
Greenwood and Williamson model
Example: TiN contacts
Real area of contact using the Greenwood and Williamson model
Example: Recording head on a laser textured disk surface
Inelastic impacts
References
Friction
Amontons' and Coulomb's laws of friction
Adhesion and plowing in friction
Adhesive friction
Plowing friction
Work hardening
Junction growth
Static friction
Stick-slip
Velocity-controlled stick-slip
Time-controlled stick-slip
Displacement-controlled stick-slip
References
Surface energy and capillary pressure
Liquid surface tension
Capillary pressure
Capillary pressure in confined places
The Kelvin equation and capillary condensation
Example: Capillary condensation of water in a nanosized pore
Example: Capillary condensation of an organic vapor at a sphere-on-flat geometry
Interfacial energy and work of adhesion
Surface Energy of Solids
Why solids are not like liquids
Experimental determination of a solid's surface energy
Contact angles
Estimating interfacial energies
Zisman method for estimating surface energy for a solid
Types of wetting
Contact angle measurements
Contact angle hysteresis
Adhesion hysteresis
References
Surface forces derived from surface energies
The Derjaguin approximation
Dry environment
Force between a sphere and a flat
Example: Adhesion force between two polystyrene spheres
Example: Adhesion force between a polystyrene sphere and a PTFE Flat
Example: Adhesion force for an atomically sharp asperity
Adhesion-induced deformation at a sphere-on-flat contact
The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory
The Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) theory
Adhesion deformation in nanoscale contacts
Wet environment
Force for a sphere-on-flat in a wet environment
Example: Lubricant meniscus force on an AFM tip
Solid-solid adhesion in the presence of a liquid meniscus
Water menisci in sand
Meniscus force for different wetting regimes at contacting interfaces
Toe dipping regime
Example: Toe dipping adhesion with exponential distribution of summit heights
Pillbox and flooded regimes
Immersed regime
Example: Liquid adhesion of a microfabricated cantilever beam
References
Physical origins of surface forces
Normal force sign convention
Repulsive atomic potentials
Van der Waals forces
Van der Waals forces between molecules
Retardation effects for dispersion forces
Van der Waals forces between macroscopic objects
Molecule-flat surface interaction
Flat-Flat interaction
Sphere-flat interaction
The Hamaker constant
Determining Hamaker constants from Lifshitz's theory
Example: Van der Waals force on a polystyrene sphere above a Teflon flat
Surface energies arising from van der Waals interactions
Van der Waals adhesive pressure
Van der Waals interaction between contacting rough surfaces
Example: Stuck microcantilevers
Example: Gecko adhesion
Van der Waals contribution to the disjoining pressure of a liquid film
Liquid-mediated forces between solids
Solvation forces
Example: Squalane between smooth mica surfaces
Oscillatory solvation forces at sharp AFM contacts
Forces in aqueous medium
Electrostatic double-layer force
Hydration repulsion and hydrophobic attraction
Contact electrification
Mechanisms of contact electrification
Conductor-conductor contact
Example: Recording head slider flying over a disk in a disk drive
Metal-insulator and insulator-insulator Contacts
AFM studies of contact electrification
References
Measuring surface forces
Surface force apparatus
Atomic force microscope
Examples of forces acting on AFM tips
Van der Waals forces under vacuum conditions
Capillary condensation of contaminants and water vapor
Bonded and unbonded perfluoropolyether polymer films
Electrostatic double-layer force
References
Lubrication
Lubrication regimes
Viscosity
Definition and units
Non-Newtonian behavior and shear degradation
Temperature dependence
Fluid film flow in confined geometries
Slippage at liquid-solid interfaces
Definition of slip length
Measuring slip at liquid-solid interfaces
Pressure drop versus flow rate method
Drainage versus viscous force
Mechanisms for slip at liquid-solid interfaces
Molecular slip
Molecular slip at low energy surfaces
Slippage of polymers melts
Apparent slip
Example: Shear stress in the presence of slip
Why does the no-slip boundary condition work so well?
Fluid film lubrication
Hydrodynamic lubrication
Inclined plane bearing
Rayleigh step bearing
Journal bearings
Gas bearings
Slip flow in gas bearings
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication
Pressure dependence of viscosity
Pressure-induced elastic deformation
Example: Minimum film thickness between sliding gear teeth
Experimental measurements of elastohydrodynamic lubrication
Important physical and chemical properties of lubricants
Surface tension
Thermal properties
References
Lubrication in tight spots
Confined liquids
Boundary lubrication
Molecular mechanisms of boundary lubrication
Molecularly thin liquid boundary lubricant layers
Example of the importance of end-groups in a liquid lubricant film
Capillary and disjoining pressures
Disjoining pressure
Distribution of a liquid film around a pore opening
Example: Measurement of the disjoining pressure of a perfluoropolyether lubricant
Lubricant distribution between contacting surfaces
Meniscus force
Example: Stiction of a recording head slider
Calculating meniscus force
Example: Calculation of stiction force of disk drive sliders in the pillbox regime
Padded or stiction-free slider
Liquid menisci at high speeds
References
Atomistic origins of friction
Simple models for adhesive friction
Atomistic models for static friction
Frenkel-Kontorova model
Experimental realizations of ultra-low friction in incommensurate sliding systems
Tomlinson model
Example: An AFM tip sliding across an NaCl crystal at ultra-low loads
Molecular dynamic simulations
Example: Cold welding
Why static friction occurs in real-life situations
Atomic origins of kinetic friction
Sliding isolated molecules and monolayers across surfaces
Quartz crystal microbalance
Example: Xe on Ag(111)
Movement of a liquid film on a surface with the blow-off technique
Example: Wind-driven flow of perfluoropolyether lubricants on silicon wafers
Pinning of an absorbed layer
References
Wear
Simple model for sliding wear
Major influences on wear rates
Wear maps
Mechanisms of wear
Wear from plastic deformation
Adhesive wear
Example: An atomic level simulation of adhesive wear
Abrasive wear
Oxidative wear
Metals
Carbon overcoats
Ceramics
Plasticity at the nanoscale
References
Index

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