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Structure and Dynamics An Atomic View of Materials

ISBN-10: 0198506783
ISBN-13: 9780198506782
Edition: 2002
Authors: Martin T. Dove
List price: $55.00
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Description: This book is concerned with a wide range of general principles that govern the behaviour of atoms in solids, and these principles are applied to the full range of types of materials known to man. The dual focus is on the structures of materials at  More...

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Book details

List price: $55.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/15/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 360
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

This book is concerned with a wide range of general principles that govern the behaviour of atoms in solids, and these principles are applied to the full range of types of materials known to man. The dual focus is on the structures of materials at an atomic level and on how the atoms vibrate inside solids. This dual focus comes together to explore how the atomic principles determine the behaviour and properties of materials. Attention is also given to experimental methods. The general principles include the factors that determine the packing of atoms to form the huge variety of structures, the formal description of real and reciprocal space, the types of atomic bonding, the formalism of atomic vibrations, and the theories of phase transitions. The tools covered include diffraction and spectroscopy, both laboratory and large-scale facilities.

Symbols
Introduction
Observations
Length scales and time scales
Tools of the trade
Summary of chapter
Further reading for Chapter 1
Structure of materials
Introduction
Crystal structures of the elements
Crystal structures of some simple inorganic compounds
The perovskite family of crystal structures
Organic crystals
Disordered materials
Glasses and amorphous phases
Conclusions
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Formal description of crystal structures
Introduction
Crystal structure: lattices, unit cell, and atomic coordinates
Crystal symmetry 1. Point-symmetry operations
Application of the formalism of point groups
Crystal symmetry 2. Translational symmetry and space groups
Breaking the rules: aperiodic structures, incommensurate materials, and quasicrystals
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
The reciprocal lattice
The concept of the reciprocal lattice
Definitions
Non-primitive lattices
The reciprocal lattice as the Fourier transform of the crystal lattice
Reciprocal space and the Brillouin zone
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Atomic bonding in crystals
Bonding and the variety of crystal structures
Thermodynamic preamble: the context of the binding energy
Lattice energy
Models of bonding
Quantum mechanical view of chemical bonding
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Diffraction
Basics of diffraction
Beams of radiation and measurement of diffraction patterns
Basics of the theory of diffraction
Scattering of radiation from a continuous distribution of particles
Diffraction and Fourier analysis
Application: the structure of glasses revealed by neutron scattering
Diffraction from crystalline materials
Effects of symmetry on diffraction patterns
Solution of the phase problem and determination of crystal structure
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Physical properties
Overview
First-rank tensors
Second-rank tensors
Third-rank tensors
Fourth-rank tensors
Induced changes in matter tensors
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Lattice dynamics
Why do we need to consider dynamics?
The harmonic approximation
Lattice vibrations of one-dimensional monatomic crystals
Dispersion curves in face-centred cubic materials
Lattice vibrations of crystals with several atoms in the unit cell
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Thermodynamics and lattice dynamics
The quantization of lattice vibrations
Thermodynamic functions for crystals
Atomic displacements
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Experimental methods for measurements of vibrational frequencies
Introduction
Basic ideas of spectroscopy
Neutron scattering techniques
Inelastic X-ray scattering
Light scattering
Infrared absorption spectroscopy
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Anharmonic interactions
Introduction
Thermal conductivity
Thermal expansion
Temperature dependence of phonon frequencies
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Displacive phase transitions
Introduction to displacive phase transitions
Quantitative description of displacive phase transitions: the concept of the order parameter
Landau theory of displacive phase transitions
Soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions
Lattice dynamical theory of the low-temperature phase
Summary of chapter
Further reading
Exercises
Real crystals!
Reality against ideality
Point defects
Large-scale imperfections
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Fourier analysis
Fourier transforms as the extension of Fourier series
One-dimensional Fourier transform
Some one-dimensional Fourier transforms
Convolution theorem
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Schoenflies representation of the point groups
The Schoenflies and International systems
Schoenflies labelling of non-cubic point groups
Schoenflies labelling of the cubic point groups
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Rhombohedral, trigonal, and hexagonal unit cells
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Space groups
Space group symbols
Defining symmetry
General and special positions
The International Tables of Crystallography
Relating general equivalent positions to actual atomic positions
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Lattice energy minimization
Summary of appendix
Some notes on the variational theorem
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Ewald sphere
Summary of appendix
Further reading
The Wilson plot
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Diffraction from isotropic materials
Basic diffraction equations
Isotropic orientational averages
Pair distribution functions
Reverse Fourier transform
General approach to analysis of diffraction data
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Calculation of physical properties
Expansion of the crystal energy
Equilibrium condition and the elastic constant tensor
Piezoelectric and dielectric tensors
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Partition function: some key results
The definition and use of the partition function
The free energy
Some results
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Lattice sums
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Mean-square atomic displacement and temperature factors
Summary of appendix
Further reading
Solutions to exercises
References
Index

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