Animal Locomotion

ISBN-10: 019850022X
ISBN-13: 9780198500223
Edition: 2003
List price: $84.00 Buy it from $47.71
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Description: Written by a distinguished US physiologist, this book examines how animals move, comparing running, swimming and flying. In doing so, it examines the common principles of design and movement that animals have evolved to move through very different  More...

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Book details

List price: $84.00
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/28/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 294
Size: 6.14" wide x 9.21" long x 0.64" tall
Weight: 1.320

Written by a distinguished US physiologist, this book examines how animals move, comparing running, swimming and flying. In doing so, it examines the common principles of design and movement that animals have evolved to move through very different physical environments. The underlying physiological and biomechanical properties of muscles, skeletons and nervous systems are linked to the mechanisms and control of movement. At the same time, the book articulates the captivating grace,speed, and power of animal movement.

Physical and biological properties and principles related to animal movement
Why move?
Environmental media
Physics and energetics of movement
Biomechanics of locomotor support
Scaling: the importance of size
Dimensions and units
Muscles and skeletons: the building blocks of animal movement
Muscles
Skeletons
Summary
Movement on land
Biological wheels: why so few?
Limbs as propulsors: support and swing phases
Limb mechanical advantage and joint moments: interaction of limb posture and ground reaction force
Locomotor gaits
Maneuverability versus stability
Stride frequency and stride length versus speed and size
Mass-spring properties of running
Froude number and dynamic similarity
Inferring gait and speed of fossil animals
Mechanical work: potential and kinetic energy changes during locomotion
Muscle work versus force economy
Tendon springs and muscle dampers
Summary
Movement in water
Thrust and drag
Inertia, viscosity and Reynolds number
Steady flow: drag and streamlines
Swimming fish, mammals and cephalopods: movement at high Reynolds number
Jet-based fluid propulsion
Movement at low Reynolds number: the reversibility of flow
Air-water interface: surface swimming, striding and sailing
Muscle function and force transmission in swimming
Summary
Movement in air
Lift, drag and thrust in flight
Power requirements for steady flight
Gliding flight
Flapping flight
Flight motors and wing anatomy
Maneuvering during flight
Unsteady mechanisms
Summary
Cell crawling
Organization of the cytoskeleton in animal cells
Cell crawling: formation of lamellipodia and pseudopodia for traction and locomotor work
Dynamics of actin nucleation, polymerization and degradation
Cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell movement
Cell-surface receptors mediate sensori-locomotor behavior of unicellular organisms
Summary
Jumping, climbing and suspensory locomotion
Jump take-off: generating mechanical power
Scaling of jump performance
Other mechanisms for increasing jump distance
Other morphological adaptations for jumping
Ground forces and joint power underlying vertebrate jumping
Climbing
Suspensory locomotion at larger size
Summary
Metabolic pathways for fueling locomotion
ATP: currency for converting chemical energy into mechanical work
Aerobic metabolism: oxygen consumption
Glycolysis: anaerobic metabolism
Mitochondria: citric acid cycle and cytochrome oxidative phosphorylation
Quantifying energy use: respirometry measurements of oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production
Sources and time course of energy usage during exercise
Endurance and fatigue
Intermittent exercise
Other adaptations for increased aerobic capacity
Summary
Energy cost of locomotion
Energy cost versus speed of terrestrial locomotion
Energy cost versus body size
Ectothermic versus endothermic energy patterns
Energy cost of incline running
Cost of swimming
Cost of flight
Locomotor costs compared
Summary
Neuromuscular control of movement
Sensory elements
Sensorimotor integration via local reflex pathways
Muscle recruitment in relation to functional demand: force, speed and endurance
Reciprocal inhibition: a basic feature of sensorimotor neural circuits
Distributed control: the role of central pattern generators
Two case studies of motor control
Summary
References
Index

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