Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

ISBN-10: 019539304X

ISBN-13: 9780195393040

Edition: 4th 2012

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Description:

The Physiology and Biochemistry Prokaryotes is a textbook adopted for use in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate-level biology courses that focus on the physiology and biochemistry of microorganisms. The text covers the basic principles of prokaryotic physiology, biochemistry, and cell behavior. It presents microbial metabolism within the context of the chemical and physiological problems that cells must solve in order to grow. The text is adopted because of its authoritative presentation of basic principles, coverage of recent advances from the field, clear illustrations, relevant examples and real-world applications.Course Issues:Key challenges and course issues include keeping current with the latest developments from the field; presenting/learning so much information in a single semester; training students to think like scientists; revealing the relevance of the material.Message:White provides the most current, authoritative, and relevant presentation of prokaryotic physiology and biochemistry.
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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/2/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 656
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.904
Language: English

David White: Indiana Univeristy. David is a Professor Emeritus at Indiana University where he taught microbiology, microbial physiology, and general biology for over 30 years. His research focuses on yeast biochemistry and the biology and biochemistry myxobacteria. James T. Drummond: Indiana University. Jim is Associate Professor of Biology at IU, and his research focuses on the underlying biochemistry of the genetic code in the pursuit of developing a better understanding of the origin and applications of this fundamental molecule of life. Clay Fuqua: Indiana University. Clay is Professor of Biology at IU and his research focuses on multicellular interactions of bacteria. He is a leading authority on the subject of "quorum-sensing" bacteria and multicellular biofilms.

Structure and Function
Phylogeny
Cell Structure
Summary
Study Questions
Reference and Notes
Growth and Cell Division
Measurement of Growth
Growth Physiology
Growth Yields
Growth Kinetics
Steady State Growth and Continuous Growth
Cell Division
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Chromosome Replication and Partitioning of Chromosomes
DNA Replication, Chromosome Separation, and Chromosome Partitioning
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Membrane Bioenergetics: The Proton Potential
The Chemiosmotic Theory
Electrochemical Energy
The Contributions of the ?? and the ?pH to the Overall ?p in Neutrophiles, Acidophiles, and Alkaliphiles
Ionophores
Measurement of the ?p
Use of the ?p To Do Work
Exergonic Reactions That Generate a ?p
Other Mechanisms For Creating a ?? or a ?p
Halorhodopsin, a Light-Driven Chloride Pump
The ?p and ATP Synthesis in Alkaliphiles
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Electron Transport
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
The Electron Carriers
Organization of the Electron Carriers in Mitochondria
Organization of The Electron Carriers in Bacteria
Coupling Sites
How a Proton Potential Might Be Created at the Coupling Sites: Q Loops, Q Cycles, and Proton Pumps
Patterns of Electron Flow in Individual Bacterial Species
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Photosynthesis
The Phototrophic Prokaryotes
The Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria
The Green Sulfur Bacteria (Chlorobiaceae)
Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts
Efficiency of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments
The Transfer of Energy from the Light Harvesting Pigments to the Reaction Center
The Structure of Photosynthetic Membranes in Bacteria
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
The Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Patterns of Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Kinetics of Regulatory and Nonregulatory Enzymes
Conformational Changes in Regulatory Enzymes
Regulation by Covalent Modification
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Bioenergetics in the Cytosol
High-Energy Molecules and Group Transfer Potential
The Central Role of Group Transfer Reactions in Biosynthesis
ATP Synthesis by Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Central Metabolic Pathways
Glycolysis
The Fate of NADH
Why Write NAD+ Instead of NAD, and NADH Instead of NADH2?
A Modified EMP Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
The Entner-Doudoroff Pathway
The Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction
The Citric Acid Cycle
Carboxylations that Replenish Oxaloacetate: The Pyruvate and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases
Modification of the Citric Acid Cycle Into a Reductive (Incomplete) Cycle During Fermentative Growth
Chemistry of Some of the Reactions in the Citric Acid Cycle
The Glyoxylate Cycle
Formation of Phosphoenolpyruvate
Formation of Pyruvate from Malate
Summary of the Relationships Between the Pathways
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Metabolism of Lipids, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Hydrocarbons
Lipids
Nucleotides
Amino Acids
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Cell Wall and Capsule Biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide
Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis and Export in Gram Negative Bacteria
Levan and Dextran Synthesis
Glycogen Synthesis
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Inorganic Metabolism
Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulfate
Dissimilation of Nitraate and Sulfate
Nitrogen Fixation
Lithotrophy
Summary
Study Questions
Reference and Notes
C1 Metabolism
Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems
Growth on C1 Compounds Other than CO2: The Methylotrophs
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Fermentations
Oxygen Toxicity
Energy Conservation by Anaerobic Bacteria
Electron Sinks
The Anaerobic Food Chain
How to Balance a Fermentation
Propionate Fermentation via the Acrylate Pathway
Propionate Fermentation via the Succinate-Propionate Pathway
Acetate Fermentation ( Acetogenesis)
Lactate Fermentation
Mixed-Acid and Butanediol Fermentation
Butyrate Fermentation
Ruminococcus albus
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Responses to Environmental Stress
Maintaining a ?pH
Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential
Heat-Shock Response (HSR)
Repairing Damaged DNA
The SOS Response
Oxidative Stress
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Solute Transport
The Use of Proteoliposomes to Study Solute Transport
Kinetics of Solute Uptake
Energy-Dependent Transport
How to Determine the Source of Energy for Transport
Drug-Export Systems
Bacterial Transport Systems in Summary
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Protein Transport and Secretion
The Sec System
The Translocation of Membrane-Bound Proteins
The E. coli SRP
Protein Translocation of Folded Proteins: The TAT System
Extracellular Protein Secretion
Folding of Periplasmic Proteins
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Responses to Environmental Cues
Introduction to Two-Component Signaling Systems
Responses by Facultative Anaerobes to Anaerobiosis
Response to Nitrate and Nitrite: The Nar Regulatory System
Response to Nitrogen Supply: The Ntr Regulon
Response to Inorganic Phosphate Supply: The Pho Regulon
Effect of Oxygen and Light on the Expression of Photosynthetic Genes in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus
Response to Osmotic Pressure and Temperature: Regulation of Porin Synthesis
Response to Potassium Ion and External Osmolarity: Stimulation of Transcription of the kdpABC Operson by a Two-Component Regulatory System
Acetyl Phosphate Is a Possible Global Signal in Certain Two-Component Systems
Response to Carbon Sources: Catabolite Repression, Inducer Expulsion, Permease Synthesis
Virulence Factors: Synthesis in Response to Temperature, pH, Nutrient Osmolarity, and Quorum Sensors
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Chemotaxis, Photoresponses, Aerotaxis
Bacteria Measure Changes in Concentration Over Time
Tumbling
Adaptation
Proteins Required for Chemotaxis
A Model for Chemotaxis
Mechanism of Repellent Action
Chemotaxis That Does Not Use MCPs: The Phosphotransferase System Is Involved In Chemotaxis Toward PTS Sugars
Chemotaxis That Is Not Identical With The Model Proposed For The Enteric Bacteria
Photoresponses
Halobacteria
Photosynthetic Bacteria
Aerotaxis
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Microbial Biofilms - Structured Multicellular Assemblies
Bacterial Multicellular Structures
Prevalence and Importance of Biofilms
Properties of Biofilms
Progression of Biofilm Formation and Dissolution
Regulation of Biofilm Formation
Inhibition of Biofilm Formation
Evolutionary Processes in Biofilms
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Cell-Cell Communication Mechanisms
Diversity of Diffusible Signal Molecules Produced by Bacteria
Specific Signaling Systems
Cell-Cell Signaling that Requires Contact
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
Bacterial Development
Myxobacteria
Caulobacter
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis
Summary
Study Questions
References and Notes
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