Great Philosophical Arguments An Introduction to Philosophy

ISBN-10: 0195342607
ISBN-13: 9780195342604
Edition: 2012
Authors: Lewis Vaughn
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Book details

List price: $96.95
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/11/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 704
Size: 9.21" wide x 7.52" long x 1.18" tall
Weight: 2.596
Language: English

Lewis Vaughn is an independent scholar and freelance writer living in Amherst, New York. He is the author of several leading textbooks, including Doing Ethics: Moral Reasoning and Contemporary Issues.

Philosophical Work
Back to Basics
The Consolations of Philosophy
Box: Socrates
Philosophy and Arguments
Key Terms
Plato: Socrates' Examined Life
Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy
Chapter 1 Essay Questions
The Existence of God
Key Terms
The Cosmological Argument
Box: Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica
J. L. Mackie: Critique of Cosmological Arguments
William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argument
Avicenna: On the Nature of God
Argument 1 Essay Questions
The Design Argument from Analogy
William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker
David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Argument 2 Essay Questions
The Design Argument from the Best Explanation
Richard Swinburne: The Best Explanation of Apparent Design
Lewis Vaughn: The Failure of Supernatural Hypotheses
Michael J. Behe: Intelligent Design
Philip Kitchen Living with Darwin
Argument 3 Essay Questions
The Ontological Argument
St. Anselm: Anselm's Proof
Immanuel Kant: Of the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof
William L. Rowe: The Problem with the Ontological Argument
Ren� Descartes: On the Ontological Argument
Argument 4 Essay Questions
The Argument from Miracles
J. L. Mackie: Miracles and Testimony
David Hume: Of Miracles
Richard Swinburne: Miracles
Argument 5 Essay Questions
The Argument from Evil
William L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism
H. J. McCloskey: God and Evil
Alvin Plantinga: The Free Will Defense
John Hick: The Soul-Making Defense
Argument 6 Essay Questions
Chapter 2 Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Knowledge and Skepticism
Key Terms
Descartes' Dream and Evil Genius Arguments
Ren� Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation I)
Christopher Grau: Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix
Argument 7 Essay Questions
Descartes Argument against Skepticism
Ren� Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditation IV)
David Hume: Of Skepticism with Regard to the Senses
Robert Audi: Against Skepticism
Argument 8 Essay Questions
Berkeley's Argument against the Existence of Material Objects
George Berkeley: Principles of Human Knowledge
John Locke: An Essay concerning Human Understanding
Bertrand Russell: Berkeley's Idealism
Argument 9 Essay Questions
Hume's Argument against Induction
Box: David Hume
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Induction
Argument 10 Essay Questions
Chapter 3 Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Mind and Body
Box: Ren� Descartes
Key Terms
Descartes' Conceivability Argument for Dualism
Ren� Descartes: Discourse on Method
Paul M. Churchland: Dualism
Buddhist Writings: There Is No Ego
Argument 11 Essay Questions
Nagel's Bat Argument against Mind-Body Identity
Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes
Argument 12 Essay Questions
Chalmers' Zombie Argument against Materialism
David Chalmers: The Logical Possibility of Zombies
Daniel C. Dennett: "Epiphenomenal" Qualia?
Argument 13 Essay Questions
Block's Chinese Brain Argument against Functionalism
Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalism
Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem
Argument 14 Essay Questions
Searle's Chinese Room Argument against Strong AI
John R. Searle: Is the Brains Mind a Computer Program?
William G. Lycan: Machine Consciousness
Argument 15 Essay Questions
Chapter 4 Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Free Will and Determinism
Key Terms
Argument for Hard Determinism
Baron d'Holbach: Of the System of Man's Free Agency
Richard Taylor: Freedom and Determinism
Jean-Paul Sartre: Absolute Freedom
Argument 16 Essay Questions
Indeterminist Argument for Free Will
Box: William James
William James: The Dilemma of Determinism
Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science
Argument 17 Essay Questions
Argument against Compatibilism
W. T. Stace: The Problem of Free Will
William L. Rowe: Two Concepts of Freedom
Harry G. Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
Peter van Inwagen: The Incompatibility of Free Will and Determinism
Argument 18 Essay Questions
Argument against Libertarianism
Randolph Clarke: Toward a Credible Agent-Causal Account of Free Will
Galen Strawson: Libertarianism, Action, and Self-Determination
Timothy O'Connor: Agent Causation
Argument 19 Essay Questions
Chapter 5 Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Key Terms
Argument for Cultural Relativism
Ruth Benedict: The Case for Moral Relativism
Russ Shafer-Landau: Ethical Relativism
Argument 20 Essay Questions
Argument against Ethical Egoism
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan
Louis P. Pojman: A Critique of Ethical Egoism
Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism
Argument 21 Essay Questions
Argument against the Divine Command Theory
Plato: Euthyphro
Russ Shafer-Landau: The Divine Command Theory
Argument 22 Essay Questions
Argument against Utilitarianism
Box: John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism
E. F. Carritt: Criticisms of Utilitarianism
Argument 23 Essay Questions
Argument against Kantian Ethics
Immanuel Kant: Foundations of the Metaphysic of Morals
William K. Frankena: Kant's Theory
Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care
Argument 24 Essay Questions
Chapter 6 Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Philosophy at Work: Contemporary Ethical Debates
Key Terms
Two Arguments against Abortion
John T. Noonan, Jr.: An Almost Absolute Value in History
Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral
Two Arguments for Abortion
Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion
Abortion Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Key Terms
Two Arguments against Euthanasia
Leon R. Kass: Why Doctors Must Not Kill
Daniel Callahan: When Self-Determination Runs Amok
Two Arguments for Euthanasia
Dan W. Brock: Voluntary Active Euthanasia
James Rachels: Active and Passive Euthanasia
Euthanasia Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Global Hunger
Key Terms
Hardin's Argument against Aiding the Poor
Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat
William W. Murdoch and Allan Oaten: A Critique of Lifeboat Ethics
Singer's Argument for Aiding the Poor
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Louis P. Pojman: World Hunger and Population
Global Hunger Essay Questions
Suggestions for Further Reading
Appendix: How to Read and Write Argumentative Essays

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