Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0195319842
ISBN-13: 9780195319842
Edition: 2nd 2010
List price: $67.00
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Description: How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, and find their way around? Do any non-human animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or think as we do? What use is cognition in nature and how might it have  More...

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Book details

List price: $67.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/30/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 688
Size: 6.97" wide x 9.92" long x 1.34" tall
Weight: 2.596
Language: English

How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, and find their way around? Do any non-human animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or think as we do? What use is cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? Historically, research on suchquestions has been fragmented between psychology, where the emphasis has been on theoretical models and lab experiments, and biology, where studies focus on evolution and the adaptive use of perception, learning, and decision-making in the field. Cognition, Evolution and the Study of Behavior integrates research from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research about animal cognition in the broadest sense, from species-specific adaptations in fish to cognitive mapping in rats and honeybeesto theories of mind for chimpanzees. As a major contribution to the emerging discipline of comparative cognition, the book is an invaluable resource for all students and researchers in psychology, zoology, and behavioral neuroscience. It will also interest general readers curious about the detailsof how and why animals--including humans--process, retain, and use information as they do.

Cognition and the Study of Behavior
What is comparative cognition about?
Kinds of explanation for behavior
Approaches to comparative cognition
Summary
Evolution, Behavior, and Cognition: A Primer
Testing adaptation
Mapping phylogeny
Evolution, cognition, and the structure of behavior
Evolution and the brain
What does all this have to do with comparative psychology?
Summarizing and looking ahead
Fundamental Mechanisms
Perception and Attention
Specialized sensory systems
How can we find out what animals perceive?
Some psychophysical principles
Signal detection theory
Perception and evolution: Sensory ecology
Search and attention
Attention and foraging: The behavioral ecology of attention
Summary
Learning: Introduction and Pavlovian Conditioning
General processes and �constraints on learning�
A framework for thinking about learning
When and how will learning evolve?
Pavlovian conditioning: Conditions for learning
What is learned?
Conditional control of behavior: Occasion setting and modulation
Effects of learning on behavior
Concluding remarks
Recognition Learning
Habituation
Perceptual learning
Imprinting
The behavioral ecology of social recognition: Recognizing kin
Forms of recognition learning compared
Discrimination, Classification, and Concepts
Three examples
Untrained responses to natural stimuli
Classifying complex natural stimuli
Discrimination learning
Category discrimination and concepts
Summary and conclusions
Memory
Functions and properties of memory
Methods for studying memory in animals
Conditions for memory
Species differences in memory?
Mechanisms: What is remembered and why is it forgotten?
Memory and consciousness
Summary and conclusions
Physical Cognition
Getting Around: Spatial Cognition
Mechanisms for spatial orientation
Modularity and integration
Acquiring spatial knowledge: The conditions for learning
Do animals have cognitive maps?
Summary
Timing
Circadian rhythms
Interval timing: Data
Interval timing: Theories
Summary: Two timing systems?
Numerical Competence
Numerosity discrimination and the analog magnitude system
The object tracking system
Ordinal comparison: Numerosity, serial position, and transitive inference
Labels and language
Numerical cognition and comparative psychology
Cognition and the Consequences of Behavior: Foraging, Planning, Instrumental Learning, and Using Tools
Foraging
Long-term or short-term maximizing: Do animals plan ahead?
Causal learning and instrumental behavior
Using and understanding tools
On causal learning and killjoy explanations
Social Cognition
Social Intelligence
The social intelligence hypothesis
The nature of social knowledge
Intentionality and social understanding
Theory of mind
Cooperation
Summary
Social Learning
Social learning in context
Mechanisms: Social learning without imitation
Mechanisms: Imitation
Do nonhuman animals teach?
Animal cultures?
Summary and conclusions
Communication and Language
Some basic issues
Natural communication systems
Trying to teach human language to other species
Language evolution and animal communication: New directions
Summary and conclusions
Summing Up and Looking Ahead
Modularity and the animal mind
Theory and method in comparative cognition
Humans versus other species: Different in degree or kind?
The future: Tinbergen's four questions, and a fifth one
References
Credits
Author Index
Subject Index

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