Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

ISBN-10: 0195301684

ISBN-13: 9780195301687

Edition: 3rd 2006 (Revised)

Authors: David White
List price: $120.00
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Description: This textbook and reference book describes a broad range of topics of interest to microbiologists. These include the structure, physiology, and biochemistry of bacteria, as well as cell-cell signaling, microbial development, and biofilm formation. It is written for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers. Students enthusiastically respond to how the text explains material in a simple, straight-forward manner. A special feature of this text, generally not found inothers, is that it is extensively referenced at the end of each chapter with citations from the research literature. In addition, the Notes at the end of each chapter provide extra information on the topics discussed in the chapter for those who wish to dig deeper. Thought-provoking questions whichclose each chapter will help students learn the material and prepare for exams.

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Book details

List price: $120.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/16/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 656
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.926
Language: English

Boxed Material
Preface
Symbols
Conversion Factors, Equations, and Units of Energy
Definitions
Structure and Function
Phylogeny
Cell Structure
Summary
Study Questions
Growth and Cell Division
Measurement of Growth
Growth Physiology
Cell Division
Growth Yields
Growth Kinetics
Steady State Growth and Continuous Growth
Summary
Study Questions
Membrane Bioenergetics: The Proton Potential
The Chemiosmotic Theory
Electrochemical Energy
The Contributions of the [Delta psi] and the [Delta]pH to the Overall [Delta]p in Neutrophiles, Acidophiles, and Alkaliphiles
Ionophores
Measurement of the [Delta]p
Use of the [Delta]p to Do Work
Exergonic Reactions that Generate a [Delta]p
Other Mechanisms for Creating a [Delta psi] or a [Delta]p
Halorhodopsin, a Light-Driven Chloride Pump
The [Delta]p and ATP Synthesis in Alkaliphiles
Summary
Study Questions
Electron Transport
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
The Electron Carriers
Organization of the Electron Carriers in Mitochondria
Organization of the Electron Carriers in Bacteria
Coupling Sites
How a Proton Potential Might Be Created at the Coupling Sites: Q Loops, Q Cycles, and Proton Pumps
Patterns of Electron Flow in Individual Bacterial Species
Summary
Study Questions
Photosynthesis
The Phototrophic Prokaryotes
The Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria
The Green Sulfur Bacteria (Chlorbiaceae)
Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts
Efficiency of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pigments
The Transfer of Energy from the Light-Harvesting Pigments to the Reaction Center
The Structure of Photosynthetic Membranes in Bacteria
Summary
Study Questions
The Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Patterns of Regulation of Metabolic Pathways
Kinetics of Regulatory and Nonregulatory Enzymes
Conformational Changes in Regulatory Enzymes
Regulation by Covalent Modification
Summary
Study Questions
Bioenergetics in the Cytosol
High-Energy Molecules and Group Transfer Potential
The Central Role of Group Transfer Reactions in Biosynthesis
ATP Synthesis by Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Summary
Study Questions
Central Metabolic Pathways
Glycolysis
The Fate of NADH
Why Write NAD[superscript +] Instead of NAD, and NADH Instead of NADH[subscript 2]?
A Modified EMP Pathway in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
The Entner-Doudoroff Pathway
The Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA: The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction
The Citric Acid Cycle
Carboxylations that Replenish Oxaloacetate: The Pyruvate and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases
Modification of the Citric Acid Cycle into a Reductive (Incomplete) Cycle During Fermentative Growth
Chemistry of Some of the Reactions in the Citric Acid Cycle
The Glyoxylate Cycle
Formation of Phosphoenolpyruvate
Formation of Pyruvate from Malate
Summary of the Relationships Between the Pathways
Summary
Study Questions
Metabolism of Lipids, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Hydrocarbons
Lipids
Nucleotides
Amino Acids
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Summary
Study Questions
Macromolecular Synthesis
DNA Replication, Chromosome Separation, and Chromosome Partitioning
RNA Synthesis
Protein Synthesis
Summary
Study Questions
Cell Wall and Capsule Biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan
Lipopolysaccharide
Extracellular Polysaccharide Synthesis and Export in Gram-Negative Bacteria
Levan and Dextran Synthesis
Glycogen Synthesis
Summary
Study Questions
Inorganic Metabolism
Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulfate
Dissimilation of Nitrate and Sulfate
Nitrogen Fixation
Lithotrophy
Summary
Study Questions
C[subscript 1] Metabolism
Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems
Growth on C[subscript 1] Compounds Other than CO[subscript 2]: The Methylotrophs
Summary
Study Questions
Fermentations
Oxygen Toxicity
Energy Conservation by Anaerobic Bacteria
Electron Sinks
The Anaerobic Food Chain
How to Balance a Fermentation
Propionate Fermentation via the Acrylate Pathway
Propionate Fermentation via the Succinate-Propionate Pathway
Acetate Fermentation (Acetogenesis)
Lactate Fermentation
Mixed-Acid and Butanediol Fermentation
Butyrate Fermentation
Ruminococcus albus
Summary
Study Questions
Homeostasis
Maintaining a [Delta]pH
Osmotic Pressure and Osmotic Potential
Summary
Study Questions
Solute Transport
The Use of Proteoliposomes to Study Solute Transport
Kinetics of Solute Uptake
Energy-Dependent Transport
How to Determine the Source of Energy for Transport
Drug-Export Systems
Bacterial Transport Systems in Summary
Summary
Study Questions
Protein Transport
The Sec System
The Translocation of Membrane-Bound Proteins
The E. coli SRP
Protein Translocation of Folded Proteins; the Tat System
Extracellular Protein Secretion
Folding of Periplasmic Proteins
Summary
Study Questions
Microbial Development and Physiological Adaptation: Varied Responses to Environmental Cues and Intercellular Signals
Introduction to Two-Component Signaling Systems
Responses by Facultative Anaerobes to Anaerobiosis
Response to Nitrate and Nitrite: The Nar Regulatory System
Response to Nitrogen Supply: The Ntr Regulon
Response to Inorganic Phosphate Supply: The Pho Regulon
Effect of Oxygen and Light on the Expression of Photosynthetic Genes in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus
Response to Osmotic Pressure and Temperature: Regulation of Porin Synthesis
Response to Potassium Ion and External Osmolarity: Stimulation of Transcription of the kdpABC Operon by a Two-Component Regulatory System
Acetyl-Phosphate Is a Possible Global Signal in Certain Two-Component Systems
Response to Carbon Sources: Catabolite Repression, Inducer Expulsion, Permease Synthesis
Virulence Factors: Synthesis in Response to Temperature, pH, Nutrient, Osmolarity, and Quorum Sensors
Chemotaxis
Photoresponses
Aerotaxis
Introduction to Bacterial Development and to Quorum Sensing
Myxobacteria
Caulobacter Development: Control of DNA Replication and Cell Cycle Genes
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis
Competence in Bacillus subtilis
Bioluminescence
Systems Similar to LuxR/LuxI in Nonluminescent Bacteria
Biofilms
Summary
Study Questions
How Bacteria Respond to Environmental Stress
Heat-Shock Response
Repairing Damaged DNA
The SOS Response
Oxidative Stress
Summary
Study Questions
Index
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