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Essential Logic Basic Reasoning Skills for the Twenty-First Century

ISBN-10: 019515505X
ISBN-13: 9780195155051
Edition: 1996
Authors: Ronald C. Pine
List price: $114.95 Buy it from $24.65
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Description: Essential Logic offers: BL Readability. A dialogue-like yet challenging style makes this introductory logic textbook engaging and interesting. BL Essentials. Deductive and inductive reasoning, formal and informal logic are placed within a  More...

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Book details

List price: $114.95
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/6/1995
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.826
Language: English

Essential Logic offers: BL Readability. A dialogue-like yet challenging style makes this introductory logic textbook engaging and interesting. BL Essentials. Deductive and inductive reasoning, formal and informal logic are placed within a philosophical perspective. BL Rigor. A careful sequence of learning steps communicates the essential skills of reasoning and directs students to write, support, and argue by connecting criticism to key concepts. BL Relevance. Explanations and examples take students' lives into consideration and are designed for students with diverse backgrounds and a wide range of experiences. BL A Theme. Traditional concepts are integrated with a discussion of modern technological issues and the world view of modern science. A unique chapter on Logic and Hope addresses questions students often ask and suggests a global perspective. BL Controversy. Students are encouraged to defend and critique positions--including those presented by the author. A unique final chapter on Fuzzy Logic is framed as a debate between Western and Eastern philosophy. BL Exercises. Students gain confidence in recognizing arguments, structuring them into premises and conclusions, identifying and critiquing informal fallacies, while learning to create, follow, and appreciate symbolic reasoning trails. BL Coverage. Chapters cover Argument Recognition and Language Analysis, Inductive Reasoning, Structuring Informal Fallacies, Symbolic Translation, Truth Tables, Formal Proofs of Validity, Quantification, and the basics of Fuzzy Set Theory and Propositional Logic.

Preface
Introduction
Why Study Logic
Logic as a Defensive Tool
Deductive Reasoning
Valid, Invalid, and Sound Arguments
Logic and Belief Testing
Key Terminology
Concept Summary
Exercises
Arguments and Language
Recognizing Arguments
Other Uses of Language
Meaning and Clarification
What is Truth?
Key Terminology
Concept Summary
Exercises
Inductive Reasoning and Reasonable Beliefs
Deduction and Induction
Induction and Reliable Beliefs
Induction: A Case Study
Logic and Creativity
Key Terminology
Concept Summary
Exercises
Informal Fallacies I
Introduction
The Value of Abstraction
Fallacies of Relevance
Appeal to Popularity
Appeal to Authority
Traditional Wisdom
Provincialism
Appeal to Loyalty
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Ad Hominem Abusive and Circumstantial
Irrelevant Reason
Key Terminology
Concept Summary
Exercises
Informal Fallacies II
Introduction
Fallacies of Questionable Premise
Slippery Slope
Questionable Dilemma
Straw Person
Fallacies of Weak Induction
Hasty Conclusion
Questionable Cause
Appeal to Ignorance
Fallacies of Presumption
Begging the Question
Complex Question
Ambiguity-Equivocation
Questionable Analogy
Suppressed Evidence
Key Terminology
Concept Summary
Exercises
Logic and Hope
Exercises
Symbolic Translation
Introduction
Logical Connectives
Usage Dictionary of Logical Connectives
Exercise I
Exercise II
Complex Translations, the Use of Parentheses, and Arguments
Exercise III
Exercise IV
Exercise V
Bit Brains Logical Connectives, and Truth Tables
Introduction
Symbolic Pictures of Logical Connectives: And, Or, and Not
Exercise I
Logical Connectives Continued: If . . . then . . . and If and only if
Exercise II
Short Cuts and Human Learning
Truth Tables, Validity, and Logical Pictures
Exercise III
Exercise IV
Argument Forms and Variables
Exercise V
Brief Truth Tables
Exercise VI
Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity
Introduction
Constructing Formal Proofs of Validity
Recognizing Forms: Copi's ""Nine"" Rules of Inference
Exercises
Strategies for Pattern Recognition
Justifying Reasoning Trails with the Rules of Inference
Exercises
On Your Own, Constructing Formal Proofs with the Rules of Inference
Exercises
Translations and Formal Proofs
Symbolic Trails and Formal Proofs of Validity, Part 2
Introduction
Application Practice
The Nineteen Rules
Rules of Replacement Exercises
Commonsense Origins
Strategies for Pattern Recognition Revisited
Exercises
Subroutines
Direction, Strategies, and Working Backward
Exercises
Brief Truth Tables Revisited and Decision Strategies
Translation and Formal Proof Exercises
Holiday Adventures
Clarification Exercises
Other Logical Tools: Syllogisms and Quantification
Introduction
Syllogisms and Quantification Logic
Usage Dictionary
Dictionary Elaboration
Exercise I
Proving Validity in Quantification Logic
The Square of Opposition and Change of Quantifier Rules
Exercise II
Exercise III
Exercise IV
Exercise V
Exercise VI
Exercise VII
Final Note
Frontiers of Logic--Fuzzy Logic: Can Aristotle and Buddha Get Along?
Introduction
Bivalent Logic and Paradoxes
Fuzzy Interpretations and Degrees of Truth
Fuzzy Conditionals and Fuzzy Validity
Resolution of Paradoxes and Implications
Philosophy: What about reality?
Exercise I
Exercises II-IV
Exercises V

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