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Origins of Neuroscience A History of Explorations into Brain Function

ISBN-10: 0195146948
ISBN-13: 9780195146943
Edition: 2001
Authors: Stanley Finger
List price: $56.00 Buy it from $36.20
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Description: With over 350 illustrations, this impressive volume traces the rich history of ideas about the functioning of the brain from its roots in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Greece, and Rome through the centuries into relatively modern times. In contrast  More...

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Book details

List price: $56.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/11/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.948

With over 350 illustrations, this impressive volume traces the rich history of ideas about the functioning of the brain from its roots in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Greece, and Rome through the centuries into relatively modern times. In contrast to biographically oriented accounts, this book is unique in its emphasis on the functions of the brain and how they came to be associated with specific brain regions and systems. Among the topics explored are vision, hearing, pain, motor control, sleep, memory, speech, and various other facets of intellect. The emphasis throughout is on presenting material in a very readable way, while describing with scholarly acumen the historical evolution of the field in all its amazing wealth and detail. From the opening introductory chapters to the concluding look at treatments and therapies, this monumental work will captivate readers from cover to cover. It will be valued as both an historical reference and as an exciting tale of scientific discovery. It is bound to attract a wide readership among students and professionals in the neural sciences as well as general readers interested in the history of science and medicine.

Introduction
Theories of Brain Function
The Brain in Antiquity
Head Injuries in Early Hominids
Trepanation
Egyptian Medical Records
Illness and Mythology in Ancient Egypt
Mesopotamian Medicine
Ancient India
Ancient China
The Greek Elements and the Hippocratic Revolution
The Heart or the Head?
Galen and the Brain
Changing Concepts of Brain Function
Ventricular Localization
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
Willis and His Contemporaries
Cartesian Mechanics and the Brain
The Eighteenth Century
The Discovery of the Respiratory Center
The Bell-Magendie Law
Some Remarkable Premonitions
The Era of Cortical Localization
Gall and Phrenology
The Reaction against Phrenology
Speech and the Frontal Lobe
Experimental Confirmation of a Motor Cortex
Ferrier's Experiments
Electrophysiological Recordings
Cytoarchitectonics
"Neuron Doctrine" and Localization
Holism and the Critics of Cortical Localization
Cortical Equipotentiality and the Challenge from Phrenology
Challenges in the Post-Broca Era
Nerve Nets and Holistic Function
The Brain According to Goltz
Localization for Some But Not All Functions
Matters of Logic
Holism and the Gestalt Movement
The Holism of Monakow and Head
Franz and the American School
Lashley's Experiments and Theories
Conclusions
Sensory Systems
Vision: From Antiquity through the Renaissance
Visual Disturbances in Ancient Egypt
Assyro-Babylonian Ophthalmology
Ancient India
Greek Anatomy and Metaphysical Theories of Vision
Roman Theories of Vision
Arabic Cultures
Renaissance Optics and Physiology
Post-Renaissance Visual Anatomy and Physiology
The Discovery of the Blind Spot
Leeuwenhoek's Microscopy of the Retina
The Projections of the Optic Nerve in the Seventeenth Century
Some Eighteenth-Century Advances
The Discovery of the Stripe of Gennari
Rods, Cones, and Duplicity Theory
Boll's Discovery of Rhodopsin
Further Studies of Retinal Structure
The Optic Chiasma
Brainstem Terminations of the Retinal Projections
Early Hints of an Occipital Cortical Region for Vision
Ferrier's Studies with Monkeys
Munk's "Discovery" of the Visual Cortex
The Experimentalist Response to Munk's Ideas
Myelination and the Visual Area
Clinical Confirmation of the Occipital Localization
The Birth of Visual Electrophysiology
The Parastriate and Peristriate Areas
Some Unanswered Questions
Color Vision
Newton's Theory of Light
Color Vision in the Eighteenth Century
Early Descriptions of Color Blindness
Young's Trichromatic Theory
Helmholtz's Modifications of the Young Theory
The Color Science of Goethe
Purkyne and the Goethe Tradition
Hering and His Opponent Process Theory
Modifications by Ladd-Franklin and Donders
Phrenology, the Cerebral Cortex, and Color
Cortical Color Blindness
The Ear and Theories of Hearing
Greek Acoustics and the Implanted Air Theory
Roman Auditory Anatomy and Physiology
The Renaissance
The Seventeenth Century
The Eighteenth Century
Nineteenth-Century Physiology
Nineteenth-Century Anatomical Advances
Helmholtz and His Resonance Theory
Place Theories after Helmholtz
Pathology and Place Theories of Hearing
Frequency Theories
Auditory Electrophysiology and Theories of Hearing
Audition and the Central Nervous System
The Cochlear Nuclei
The Superior Olivary Complex
The Inferior Colliculus: A Reflex Center?
The Medial Geniculate Body
Ferrier and the Discovery of the Auditory Cortex
The Great Debate
Three Competing Theories
Auditory Auras
Cortical Deafness in Humans
More Contemporary Lesion Studies
Multiple Cortical Areas and Their Organization
The Cutaneous Senses
Cutaneous Sensation: One Sense or Many?
Weber's Psychophysical Studies
The Law of Specific Nerve Energies
Sensory Spots on the Skin
Specific End Organs for Cutaneous Sensation
Peripheral Nerve
The Peripheral Nerve and Illusory Sensations
Dermatomes
Spinal Cord and Brainstem Projections
Somatosensory Cortex: Lesions in Laboratory Animals
Lesions Involving the Postcentral Gyrus in Humans
Astereognosis
Stimulation and Epilepsy of the Human Parietal Cortex
Pain
Pain as Penalty
Atoms, Humors, and Pain
Multiple Theories of Pain
Limiting the Definition of Pain
Sensory Spots and Receptors for Pain
Double Pain
Phantom Limbs
Causalgia
Spinal Pathways: Early Nineteenth-Century Studies
Brown-Sequard's Experiments on the Spinal Cord
Schiff's Two Projection Systems
The Cases of Gowers and Spiller
Attempts to Treat Pain by Cutting Nerves and Tracts
Thalamic Syndrome
Gate Control Theory
Cerebral Cortex
Early Anesthetics
The Surgical Use of Nitrous Oxide
The Surgical Use of Ether
Gustation
Early Conceptions of Taste
Basic Tastes
Chemistry of the Primaries
The Tongue as the Organ for Taste
Differential Sensitivity of the Tongue
Specificity of the Papillae
Taste Buds
Development and Degeneration of the Papillae and Taste Buds
Vibration as a Mechanism of Receptor Activation
Cranial Nerves
Central Projections
Cortical Lesions: Laboratory Animal Experiments
Gustatory Cortex: Human Clinical Data
Taste Psychophysics
Henning's Taste Tetrahedron
Control over the Stimulus and Testing Procedures
Electrical Tastes
Olfaction
Early History
From the Renaissance to Haller
Putrefaction, Aromatics, and Olfaction
Changing Nineteenth-Century Orientations to Olfaction
Olfactory Primaries
The Adequate Stimulus
Olfactory Receptors
Air Currents and Receptor Activation
Olfactory Nerve and Bulb
Central Projections
Case Studies of the Limbic Lobe and the Cerebral Cortex
Forebrain Lesions in Laboratory Animals
The Anosmias
Zwaardemaker and Olfactory Psychophysics
A Myriad of Techniques of Olfactometry
Henning's Prism
A Degenerating Sensory System?
Motor Functions
The Pyramidal System and the Motor Cortex
Early Observations
Movement and the Cerebral Hemispheres before the Nineteenth Century
The Cerebral Hemispheres in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Jackson and the Motor Cortex Concept
Fritsch and Hitzig's Discovery
Ferrier and the Motor Cortex
Electrophysiology and the Boundaries of the Motor Cortex
The Corticospinal Tract
Voluntary Action and the Motor Cortex
Cutaneous Sensation and the Motor Cortex
The Motor Cortex and the Kinesthetic Sense
The Frontal Eye Fields
Motor versus Premotor Cortex Functions
The Cerebellum and the Corpus Striatum
The Cerebellum
The Cerebellum through the Renaissance
Thomas Willis and His Influence
Competing Ideas in the Post-Willis Period
Rolando, Flourens, and Magendie
The Cerebellum Early in the Twentieth Century
The Corpus Striatum
Defining the Corpus Striatum
Early Ideas about the Corpus Striatum
The Corpus Striatum through the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
The Impact of the Discovery of the Motor Cortex
Infrahuman Primate Studies in the First Half of the Twentieth Century
Some Movement Disorders
Ergot Poisoning
Sydenham's Chorea
Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Chorea
Athetosis
Tourette's Syndrome
The Strange Case of Samuel Johnson
Sleep and Emotion
The Process of Sleep
Greco-Roman Theories of Sleep
Sleep in the "Prescientific Era"
Measuring the Depth of Sleep
Sleep Deprivation in Humans
Sleep Deprivation in Animals
The Ability to Wake at Expected Times
A Plethora of Sleep Theories
Blood Flow and Anemia Theories
Chemical Theories
Deafferentation Theories
Evolutionary Theories
African Sleeping Sickness
Narcolepsy
The Nature of Dreaming
Ancient Egypt
Early Eastern, Biblical, and Spiritual Approaches to Dreaming
Greek Mythology and Medicine
Dreaming in Ancient Rome
From Church Doctrine through the Eighteenth Century
Dream Frequency
Stimulation and Dream Content
Dreaming among the Blind
Dreaming and Cerebral Dominance
Dreaming, the Unconscious, and Psychoanalysis
Eye Movements and Dreaming
Theories of Emotion from Democritus to William James
The Classical Period
Theories of Emotion in the Post-Renaissance Period
Bichat's Theories
The Muscles of Facial Expression
Darwin on Emotion
Darwin's Impact: Passion versus Reason
The Frontal Lobes and Emotion in Humans
The Frontal Lobes and Emotion in Animals
The James-Lange Theory
Criticisms of the James-Lange Theory
Defining and Controlling the Circuits of Emotion
The Early Concept of Sympathy and the Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems
The Hypothalamus and Emotional Expression
The Great Limbic Lobe of Broca
The Papez Limbic System
The Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Expansion of the Limbic System Concept
Early Psychosurgical Interventions for "Emotional" Disorders
Moniz and Prefrontal Leucotomy
The Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomy
Intellect and Memory
Intellect and the Brain
Brain Size and Intellect
European Science and the Family of Man
Brain Size, Race, and Intellect in America
Mental Deficiency as an Atavistic Feature
Gender Differences
Criminality and the Apish Brain
Interpretive Dilemmas
The Call for the Best Brains
The Brains of the Elite
The Growing Concept of Association Cortex
Anthropology and the Frontal Association Areas
The Need for Objective Measures of Intelligence
From Craniometry to IQ
The Frontal Lobes and Intellect
The Frontal Cortex Defined and Divided
The Frontal Lobes in the Prescientific Era
Early Descriptions of Frontal Lobe Injuries and Tumors
From Swedenborg to Phrenology
Comparative Anatomy, Tumors, and Injuries before 1861
Hitzig's Experiments
Ferrier's Monkeys
Bianchi's Observations and Theories
Other Opinions from the Experimentalists
The Tumor Literature in the Era of Localization
The Brickner Case
Acute Frontal Lobe Damage in Humans
Pick's Disease
The Critics Speak Out
The Nature of the Memory Trace
Birdhouses and Wax Tablets in the Greco-Roman Period
Aristotle and the Laws of Association
Ventricular Localization of Memory
The Cultivation of Memory in the Middle Ages
Cartesian Mechanical Models of Memory
Willis on the Cerebrum
Hartley and the Associationists
Later Vibration Theories
Organic Memory: Another Questionable Theory
The Birth of Memory Science
Changes at the Synapse
Drainage and Irradiation Theories
Franz and Lashley
Pattern Theories
The Delayed Response Problem
Progress?
The Neuropathology of Memory
Early Descriptions of the Dementias
Alzheimer's Disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Korsakoff's Psychosis
Wernicke's Encephalopathy and Korsakoff's Psychosis
The Lesions in Korsakoff's Syndrome
Avitaminosis
The Temporal Lobes and the Hippocampus
Speech and Cerebral Dominance
Speech and Language
Early Descriptions of Loss of Speech
The Greco-Roman Period
From the Dark Ages through the Renaissance
The Seventeenth Century
The Eighteenth Century
Aphasia and Phrenology
Bouillaud and Localization Theory
Broca and the Revolution of 1861
Broca's Later Observations
The British Neurologists
Wernicke and the Circuitry of Language
German and Austrian Functional Approaches
The Search for the True Reality
The Emergence of the Concept of Cerebral Dominance
An Ancient Greek Theory of Brain Laterality
Mainstream Greek and Roman Science
The Symmetrical Brain and the Mind-Body Problem
Hemispheric Balance in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mental Illness and Hemispheric Dysfunction
Clinical Reports on Aphasia in the Period before Broca
The Marc Dax Manuscript of 1836
Broca's Case for Dominance
Wernicke's Impact
Jackson's Case for the Right Hemisphere
The Search for Anatomical Correlates of Cerebral Dominance
Theories of Personality, Emotion, and Insanity
Movements to Educate the Two Hemispheres
Expansion of the Concept of Cerebral Dominance
Acquired Alexia
Developmental Dyslexia
Prosopagnosia
One or Many Spatial Disorders?
Liepmann's Apraxias
Constructional Apraxia
Denial of Illness
Unilateral Inattention and Neglect
The Gerstmann "Syndrome"
The Corpus Callosum Rediscovered
Treatments and Therapies
Treatments and Therapies: From Antiquity through the Seventeenth Century
Ancient Egypt
Assyria
Ancient Greece
Ancient Rome
Mithridates and Universal Cure-Alls
Arabic Medicine before the Renaissance
Cures during the Pre-Renaissance Period in Europe
The Renaissance
Seventeenth-Century Treatments
Treatments and Therapies: From 1700 to World War I
Head and Brain Injuries in the Eighteenth Century
Cupping and Leeching in the Nineteenth Century
Animal Electricity and Electrotherapy before Galvani
The Roles of Galvani and Volta
The Early 1800s: From Electrotherapy to Gothic Horror
Galvanism after 1850
Re-Education
Measuring the Effects of Therapy
The Birth of "Modern" Neurosurgery
Epilogue
Dates of Birth and Death
Index

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