Making Sense of Data A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

ISBN-10: 0195145259

ISBN-13: 9780195145250

Edition: 3rd 2001 (Revised)

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Description: This is a self-instructional manual on the interpretation and use of epidemiologic data that deals with the basic concepts and skills needed for appraising published reports or study findings. Applications in clinical medicine, public health, community medicine, and research are presented. The numerous changes in this edition include the addition of a section on questions to be asked before deciding to apply study results in practice, discussions of new topics (Cox proportionalhazards regression, qualitative studies, ROC curves), and fresh examples.

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Book details

List price: $54.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/6/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.616
Language: English

Introduction
The aim of this book
How to use this book
Basic Concepts And Procedures
Introduction
Determining what the facts are
Summarizing the facts
Absolute and relative differences
Diagrams
Seeking explanations for the facts
Testing explanations
The basic scientific process
Rates
Rates (continued)
Inspecting a two-dimensional table
Inspecting a two-dimensional table (continued)
Inspecting a two-dimensional table (continued)
Associations
Associations (continued)
Confounding
Confounding (continued)
Effect modification
Refinement
Skeleton tables
Elaborating an association
Modifying and confounding effects
Elaborating an association (continued)
The use of rates
Causal explanations
Testing causal explanations
Testing causal explanations (continued)
Basic procedure for appraisal of data
What are the facts?
What are the possible explanations?
What additional information is required?
Uses of epidemiological data
Test Yourself (A)
Rates And Other Measures
Introduction
What is a rate?
Prevalence rates
Prevalence rates (continued)
Questions about a rate
What kind of rate is it?
Of what is it a rate?
To what population or group does the rate refer?
How was the information obtained?
Sources of bias
Confidence interval
Validity
Qualitative studies
Use of prevalence data
Incidence rates
Incidence rates (continued)
Bias in incidence studies
Uses of incidence rates
Estimating the individual's chances
Time to event (survival time)
Estimating the individual's chances (continued)
Other rates
What are the odds?
Other rates (continued)
Odds ratio
Other measures
Indirect standardization
Indirect standardization (continued)
Direct Standardization
The use of standardized rates
Test Yourself (B)
How Good Are The Measures?
Introduction
Validity of a measure
Sensitivity and specificity
Misclassification
Differential misclassification
Effects of misclassification
Effects of misclassification (continued)
Other ways of appraising validity
Reliability
Appraisal of reliability
Appraisal of reliability (continued)
Regression toward the mean
Taking account of validity and reliability
Screening tests
Appraisal of a screening test
Appraisal of a screening test (continued)
Appraisal of diagnostic tests
ROC curves
The meaning of ""normal""
Test Yourself (C)
Making Sense Of Associations
Introduction
Explanations for an association
Effects of misclassification
Statistical significance
Statistical significance (continued)
Confounding effects
Confounding effects (continued)
Multivariate analysis
Explanations for the findings
Risk factors and risk markers
Appraising a risk marker
Uses of the findings
Risk factors and risk markers (continued)
Measures of the strength of an association
Measures of strength
Measures of strength (continued)
Matched samples
Synergism
Appraising stratified data
Making sense of a multivariate analysis
Multiple logistic regression
Multiple logistic regression (continued)
Proportional hazards regression
Multiple linear regression
Test Yourself (D)
Causes And Effects
Introduction
Kinds of study
Appraising the results of a cross-sectional study
Appraising the results of a case-control study
Appraising the results of a cohort study
Appraising the results of a group-based study
Appraising the results of an experiment
Appraising the results of a quasi-experiment
Artifact, confound or cause?
Coping with confounding
Delving into causes
Evidence for a causal relationship
Evidence for a causal relationship (continued)
mpact of a causal factor
The attributable fraction
Prevented and preventable fractions
Test Yourself (E)
Meta-Analysis: Putting It All Together
Introduction
The scope of meta-analysis
Measures used in meta-analysis
Measures used in meta-analysis (continued)
Basic information
Finding the studies
Selecting studies
The quality of the studies
Extracting the findings
Apples and oranges
Appraising combinability
Explaining heterogeneity
Explaining heterogeneity (continued)
Effect modification
Using the results
Evaluating a meta-analysis
F12
Putting Study Findings To Use
Introduction
Are the results accurately known?
Validity of the findings
Relevance of the findings
Expected effects
Feasibility and cost
Test Yourself (G)
References
Index
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