Voice of Reason Fundamentals of Critical Thinking

ISBN-10: 0195141229
ISBN-13: 9780195141221
Edition: 2002 (Supplement)
Authors: Burton F. Porter
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Description: This introduction to critical thinking covers the areas of (A) thought and language, (B) systematic reasoning, and (C) modes of proof. In addition to traditional topics such as ambiguity, definition, informal fallacies, deduction, and induction,  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/9/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.628
Language: English

This introduction to critical thinking covers the areas of (A) thought and language, (B) systematic reasoning, and (C) modes of proof. In addition to traditional topics such as ambiguity, definition, informal fallacies, deduction, and induction, this book uniquely presents the different rules of evidence in fields such as law, science, literature, and history. An accompanying Instructor's Manual contains the answers to the book's extensive exercises.

Analytic Table of Contents Preface 1. CRITICAL THINKING By Force of Argument Avoiding Self-Contradiction Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles How Words Have Meaning Using Terms and Mentioning Them Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles PART I. THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE 2. THE WAY WORDS WORK The Basic Ingredients: Intension and Extension The Connotation of Words Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Vagueness--Seeing Dimly Ambiguity--Seeing Double Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 3. LANGUAGE AND DEFINITION Types of Definitions: Stipulative and Reportive Synonym and Example Definitions Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Avoiding Definition Mistakes Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles PART II. SYSTEMATIC REASONING 4. DISAGREEMENTS, CLAIMS, AND REASONS Types of Disagreements: Factual and Verbal Interpretive and Evaluative Disagreements Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Reasoning Things Out: Truth and Relevance in Arguments Adequate Proof and Alternative Possibilities Summary Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 5. COMMON MISTAKES IN THINKING Argument to the Person and from Authority Threat of Force and Appeal to Pity Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Straw Person and Poisoning the Well The Slippery Slope and the Gambler's Fallacy Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 6. MORE SUBTLE ERRORS OF THOUGHT The Fallacy of Sweeping Generalization and Hasty Generalization Begging the Question and Complex Question Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles The Argument From Ignorance and to the Masses False Cause and Irrelevant Conclusion Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 7. REASONING IN A FORMAL WAY The Structure of Arguments: Conclusions and Premises (Claims and Warrants) Paraphrasing Statements and Seeing Implications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Syllogisms and Enthymemes Validity and Truth Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 8. PATTERNS OF DEDUCTIVE THINKING Using Categorical Arguments Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Hypotheticals: The If/Then Form Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Disjunctives: Either/Or Alternatives Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 9. INDUCTIVE THINKING: IDENTIFYING CAUSES, DRAWING ANALOGIES Causation: The Consequent and The Subsequent Establishing Causal Connections Summary Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles Similes, Metaphors, and Analogies Using Analogical Arguments Effectively Summary Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles 10. DERIVING GENERALIZATIONS, FORMING HYPOTHESES Generalizing and Describing Using a Fair Sample Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles The Explanatory Hypothesis Developing an Adequate Hypotheses Summary Applications Assignments, Exercises, Puzzles PART III. MODES OF PROOF 11. DISCOURSE COMMUNITIES

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