Meteorological Measurement Systems

ISBN-10: 0195134516
ISBN-13: 9780195134513
Edition: 2001
List price: $160.00 Buy it from $58.29
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Description: This book treats instrumentation used in meteorological surface systems, both on the synoptic scale and the mesoscale, and the instrumentation used in upper air soundings. The text includes material on first- and second-order differential equations  More...

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Book details

List price: $160.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/8/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 304
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.452
Language: English

This book treats instrumentation used in meteorological surface systems, both on the synoptic scale and the mesoscale, and the instrumentation used in upper air soundings. The text includes material on first- and second-order differential equations as applied to instrument dynamic performance, and required solutions are developed. Sensor physics are emphasized in order to explain how sensors work and to explore the strengths and weaknesses of each design type. The book is organized according to sensor type and function (temperature, humidity, and wind sensors, for example), though several unifying themes are developed for each sensor. Functional diagrams are used to portray sensors as a set of logical functions, and static sensitivity is derived from a sensor's transfer equation, focusing attention on sensor physics and on ways in which particular designs might be improved. Sensor performance specifications are explored, helping to compare various instruments and to tell users what to expect as a reasonable level of performance. Finally, the text examines the critical area of environmental exposure of instruments. In a well-designed, properly installed, and well-maintained meteorological measurement system, exposure problems are usually the largest source of error, making this chapter one of the most useful sections of the book.

Overview
Instrument Design and Selection
Performance Characteristics
Functional Model
Sources of Error
Standards
Calibration
Performance
Exposure
Procedural
System Integration
Instrument Platforms
Communication Systems
Power Source
Human Aspects of Measurement
Human Perception versus Sensor Measurements
Reasons for Automation
Design, Implementation, and Maintenance of Measurement Systems
Interpretation of Sensor Specifications
Interpretation of Results
Human Judgment
Quality Assurance
Laboratory Calibrations
Field Intercomparisons
Data Monitoring
Documentation
Independent Review
Publication of Data Quality Assessment
Scope of this Text
Questions
Bibliography
General Instrumentation References
Barometry
Atmospheric Pressure
Direct Measurement of Pressure
Mercury Barometers
Aneroid Barometers
Indirect Measurement of Pressure
Boiling Point of a Liquid
Comparison of Barometer Types
Mercury Barometers
Aneroid Barometers
Hypsometer
Exposure Error
Laboratory Experiment
Calibration of Barometers
Questions
Bibliography
Static Performance Characteristics
Some Definitions
Static Calibration
Definition of Terms Related to the Transfer Plot
Calibration Procedure
Example of a Static Calibration
Multiple Sources of Error
Significant Figures
Questions and Problems
Bibliography
Thermometry
Thermal Expansion
Bimetallic Strip
Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer
Thermoelectric Sensors
Electrical Resistance Sensors
Resistance Temperature Detectors
Thermistors
Comparison of Temperature Sensors
Exposure of Temperature Sensors
Questions
Bibliography
Notes
Hygrometry
Water Vapor Pressure
Definitions
Methods for Measuring Humidity
Removal of Water Vapor from Moist Air
Addition of Water Vapor to Air
Equilibrium Sorption of Water Vapor
Measurement of Physical Properties of Moist Air
Attainment of Vapor-Liquid or Vapor-Solid Equilibrium
Chemical Reactions
Choice of Humidity Sensor
Calibration of Humidity Sensors
Exposure of Humidity Sensors
Questions
Laboratory Exercises
Bibliography
Notes
Dynamic Performance Characteristics, Part 1
First-Order Systems
Step-Function Input
Ramp Input
Sinusoidal Input
Experimental Determination of Dynamic Performance Parameters
Application to Temperature Sensors
Questions
Bibliography
Anemometry
Methods of Measurement
Wind Force
Heat Dissipation
Speed of Sound
Calibration
Exposure
Wind Data Processing
Questions
Bibliography
Dynamic Performance Characteristics, Part 2
Generalized Dynamic Performance Models
Energy Storage Reservoirs
Second-Order Systems
Step Function Input
Ramp Input
Sinusoidal Input
Application to Sensors
Experimental Determination of Dynamic Performance Parameters
Questions
Bibliography
Precipitation Rate
Definitions
Methods of Measurement
Point Precipitation Measurement
Radar Rain Measurement
Questions
Bibliography
Solar and Earth Radiation
Definitions
Methods of Measurement
Pyrheliometers
Pyranometers
Pyrgeometers
Pyrradiometers
Measurement Errors
Exposure
Questions
Bibliography
Visibility and Cloud Height
Definitions
Measurement of Visibility
Transmissometer
Forward Scatter Meters
Measurement of Cloud Height
Rotating Beam Ceilometer
Laser Ceilometer
Questions
Bibliography
Upper Air Measurements
Methods for Making Upper Air Measurements
Remote Sensing
In-Situ Platforms
Balloons
Wind Measurement
Theodolites
Radar
Navigation Aids
Radiosondes
Exposure Error
Questions
Bibliography
Sampling and Analog-to-Digital Conversion
Signal Path
Drift
Sampling
Analog-to-Digital Conversion
Information Content of a Signal
Questions
Bibliography
Units and Constants
International System of Units (SI)
Numerical Values
Bibliography
Thermistor Circuit Analysis
A Thermistor
A Circuit
An Alternative Calibration Equation
A Data Logger
The Data Logger
Application in a Measurement System
Circuits
Fundamentals
Simple Circuits
Questions
Geophysical Coordinate System
Geophysical versus Mathematical Coordinate System
Mathematical Coordinates
Geophysical Coordinates
Instrumentation Glossary
Index

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