Cultural Nature of Human Development

ISBN-10: 0195131339

ISBN-13: 9780195131338

Edition: 2003 (Reprint)

Authors: Barbara Rogoff

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Description:

Three-year-old Kwara'ae children in Oceania act as caregivers of their younger siblings, but in the UK, it is an offense to leave a child under age 14 ears without adult supervision. In the Efe community in Zaire, infants routinely use machetes with safety and some skill, although U.S. middle-class adults often do not trust young children with knives. What explains these marked differences in the capabilities of these children? Until recently, traditional understandings of human development held that a child's development is universal and that children have characteristics and skills that develop independently of cultural processes. Barbara Rogoff argues, however, that human development must be understood as a cultural process, not simply a biological or psychological one. Individuals develop as members of a community, and their development can only be fully understood by examining the practices and circumstances of their communities.
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Book details

List price: $31.95
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/13/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 448
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.804
Language: English

Orienting Concepts and Ways of Understanding the Cultural Nature of Human Development
Looking for Cultural Regularities
One Set of Patterns: Children's Age-Grading and Segregation from Community Endeavors or Participation in Mature Activities
Other Patterns
Orienting Concepts for Understanding Cultural Processes
Moving Beyond Initial Assumptions
Beyond Ethnocentrism and Deficit Models
Separating Value Judgments from Explanations
Diverse Goals of Development
Ideas of Linear Cultural Evolution
Moving Beyond Assumptions of a Single Goal of Human Development
Learning through Insider/Outsider Communication
Outsiders' Position
Insiders' Position
Moving between Local and Global Understandings
Revising Understanding in Derived Etic Approaches
The Meaning of the "Same" Situation across Communities
Development as Transformation of Participation in Cultural Activities
A Logical Puzzle for Researchers
An Example: "We always speak only of what we see"
Researchers Questioning Assumptions
Concepts Relating Cultural and Individual Development
Whiting and Whiting's Psycho-Cultural Model
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System
Descendents
Issues in Diagramming the Relation of Individual and Cultural Processes
Sociocultural-Historical Theory
Development as Transformation of Participation in Sociocultural Activity
Individuals, Generations, and Dynamic Cultural Communities
Humans Are Biologically Cultural
Prepared Learning by Infants and Young Children
Where Do Gender Differences Come From?
Participation in Dynamic Cultural Communities
Culture as a Categorical Property of Individuals versus a Process of Participation in Dynamically Related Cultural Communities
The Case of Middle-Class European American Cultural Communities
Conceiving of Communities across Generations
Child Rearing in Families and Communities
Family Composition and Governments
Cultural Strategies for Child Survival and Care
Infant-Caregiver Attachment
Maternal Attachment under Severe Conditions
Infants' Security of Attachment
Attachment to Whom?
Family and Community Role Specializations
Extended Families
Differentiation of Caregiving, Companion, and Socializing Roles
Sibling Caregiving and Peer Relations
The Community as Caregiver
Children's Participation in or Segregation from Mature Community Activities
Access to Mature Community Activities
"Pitching in" from Early Childhood
Excluding Children and Youth from Labor--and from Productive Roles
Adults "Preparing" Children or Children Joining Adults
Engaging in Groups or Dyads
Infant Orientation: Face-to-Face with Caregiver versus Oriented to the Group
Dyadic versus Group Prototypes for Social Relations
Dyadic versus Multiparty Group Relations in Schooling
Developmental Transitions in Individuals' Roles in Their Communities
Age as a Cultural Metric for Development
Developmental Transitions Marking Change in Relation to the Community
Rates of Passing Developmental "Milestones"
Age Timing of Learning
Mental Testing
Development as a Racetrack
According Infants a Unique Social Status
Contrasting Treatment of Toddlers and Older Siblings
Continuities and Discontinuities across Early Childhood
Responsible Roles in Childhood
Onset of Responsibility at Age 5 to 7?
Maturation and Experience
Adolescence as a Special Stage
Initiation to Manhood and Womanhood
Marriage and Parenthood as Markers of Adulthood
Midlife in Relation to Maturation of the Next Generation
Gender Roles
The Centrality of Child Rearing and Household Work in Gender Role Specializations
Sociohistorical Changes over Millennia in Mothers' and Fathers' Roles
Sociohistorical Changes in Recent Centuries in U.S. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles
Occupational Roles and Power of Men and Women
Gender and Social Relations
Interdependence and Autonomy
Sleeping "Independently"
Comfort from Bedtime Routines and Objects
Social Relations in Cosleeping
Independence versus Interdependence with Autonomy
Individual Freedom of Choice in an Interdependent System
Learning to Cooperate, with Freedom of Choice
Adult-Child Cooperation and Control
Parental Discipline
Teachers' Discipline
Teasing and Shaming as Indirect Forms of Social Control
Conceptions of Moral Relations
Moral Reasoning
Morality as Individual Rights or Harmonious Social Order
Learning the Local Moral Order
Mandatory and Discretionary Concepts in Moral Codes
Cooperation and Competition
Cooperative versus Competitive Behavior in Games
Schooling and Competition
Thinking with the Tools and Institutions of Culture
Specific Contexts Rather Than General Ability: Piaget around the World
Schooling Practices in Cognitive Tests: Classification and Memory
Classification
Memory
Cultural Values of Intelligence and Maturity
Familiarity with the Interpersonal Relations used in Tests
Varying Definitions of Intelligence and Maturity
Generalizing Experience from One Situation to Another
Learning to Fit Approaches Flexibly to Circumstances
Cultural Tools for Thinking
Literacy
Mathematics
Other Conceptual Systems
Distributed Cognition in the Use of Cultural Tools for Thinking
Cognition beyond the Skull
Collaboration in Thinking across Time and Space
Collaboration Hidden in the Design of Cognitive Tools and Procedures
An Example: Sociocultural Development in Writing Technologies and Techniques
Crediting the Cultural Tools and Practices We Think With
Learning through Guided Participation in Cultural Endeavors
Basic Processes of Guided Participation
Mutual Bridging of Meanings
Mutual Structuring of Participation
Distinctive Forms of Guided Participation
Academic Lessons in the Family
Talk or Taciturnity, Gesture, and Gaze
Intent Participation in Community Activities
Cultural Change and Relations among Communities
Living the Traditions of Multiple Communities
Conflict among Cultural Groups
Transformations through Cultural Contact across Human History
An Individual's Experience of Uprooting Culture Contact
Community Changes through Recent Cultural Contacts
Western Schooling as a Locus of Culture Change
Schooling as a Foreign Mission
Schooling as a Colonial Tool
Schooling as a Tool of U.S. Western Expansion
The Persistence of Traditional Ways in Changing Cultural Systems
Contrasting Ideas of Life Success
Intervention in Cultural Organization of Community Life
Dynamic Cultural Processes: Building on More Than One Way
Learning New Ways and Keeping Cultural Traditions in Communities Where Schooling Has Not Been Prevalent
Immigrant Families Borrowing New Practices to Build on Cultural Traditions
Learning New Ways and Keeping Cultural Traditions in Communities Where Schooling Has Been Central
Cultural Variety as an Opportunity for Learning--for Individuals and Communities
The Creative Process of Learning from Cultural Variation
A Few Regularities
Concluding with a Return to the Orienting Concepts
References
Credits
Index
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