Understanding the Gender Gap An Economic History of American Women

ISBN-10: 0195072707
ISBN-13: 9780195072709
Edition: 1992 (Reprint)
List price: $81.95 Buy it from $5.96
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Description: Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has  More...

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Book details

List price: $81.95
Copyright year: 1992
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/13/1992
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 328
Size: 9.17" wide x 6.18" long x 0.59" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

Using a unique set of data drawn from the US census, statistics, city directories, and other sources, the author looks at the differences between men and women in the US labour force. She shows that the `gender gap' in income and job level that has existed throughout history cannot be explained simply as a matter of sex discrimination, nor as a result of inherent structural phenomena in the employment market.

Women's Experience in the American Economy
The Evolution of the Female Labor Force
The Measure of Market Work
Labor Force Participation of Married Women Since 1890
Cohorts of White Married Women
Cohorts Versus Cross Sections
Implications of Cohort Change
Cohorts of Nonwhite Married Women
Life-Cycle Labor Force Participation and Work Experience
Direct Measures of Life-Cycle Work
Work Experience, 1930 to 1950
Economic Development and the Life Cycle of Work
Corrections to the c. 1890 Data
Participation Rates Before 1890: Married and Adult Women
Participation Rates Before 1890: Single Women
Single Women in the Labor Force, 1890 to 1930
Summary: The Work of Women, 1790 to 1988
The Gender Gap in Earnings and Occupations
The Gender Gap in Earnings over the Long Run, 1815 to 1987
The Ratio of Female to Male Full-time Earnings
Manufacturing and Agriculture, 1815 to 1970
All Workers, 1890 to 1987
Occupational Segregation and the Male-Female Wage Gap
Sources of Change in the Ratio of Male to Female Earnings
The Gender Gap in Occupations
Occupational Distributions Among White and Black Women
Occupational Segregation by Sex, 1900 to 1980
Occupational Segregation in Manufacturing, 1900
Implications of Occupational Segregation
Summary: Earnings and Occupations
The Emergence of "Wage Discrimination"
A Measure of "Wage Discrimination"
"Wage Discrimination" in Recent Studies
Discrimination and "Wage Discrimination"
Explaining Differences Between Male and Female Earnings
Manufacturing, 1888 to 1907
Female Manufacturing Workers
Earnings of Manufacturing Workers
"Wage Discrimination" in Manufacturing
Clerical Sector, 1940
Clerical Work and Clerical Workers
Earnings of Clerical Workers
"Wage Discrimination" in Clerical Work
The Origins of "Wage Discrimination"
Summary: "Wage Discrimination"
The Changing Economic Role of Married Women
Explaining Long-term Trends in Married Women's Labor Force Participation
Supply Versus Demand
Labor Supply: Income, Wage, and Substitution Effects
A General Model of the Labor Market for Married Women
Estimates of Income, Wage, and Substitution Effects
Applying the General Model, 1890 to 1980
A Cohort Approach to Change in Married Women's Labor Force Participation
Cohort Differences in Fertility
Cohort Differences in Education
Occupational and Educational Change
A Cross-Section, Time-Series Model
Expectations and Cohort Labor Force Participation
Summary: Married Women in the Labor Force
Why Did Change Take So Long?
Marriage Bars
Extent of the Marriage Bar
Firm-Level Evidence, 1931 and 1940
Evidence from Local School Districts
Explaining the Marriage Bar
The Decline of the Marriage Bar in the 1950's
The Long-Run Impact of the Marriage Bar
Hours of Work and Part-time Employment
Hours of Work
Part-time Employment
Summary: Easing the Constraints
The Political Economy of Gender
Historical Dimensions of Public Policy
Origins and Impact of Protective Legislation
Hours and Employment Effects of Maximum Hours Legislation
Protective Legislation Versus Equality
The Federal Government and the Economic Status of Women
The President's Commission on the Status of Women, 1963
The 1963 Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Origins of Discontent
Perceptions of Discrimination
Discontent Among College Graduates
The New Political Economy of Gender: Comparable Worth and Title VII
Summary: Altering the Rules
Economic Progress and Gender Equality
The Present
The Past
The Future
Appendix to Chapter 2: Corrections to the c. 1890 Female Labor Force Participation Rates
Data Appendix
Notes
References
Index

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