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Political Thought

ISBN-10: 0192892789
ISBN-13: 9780192892782
Edition: 1999
List price: $63.95 Buy it from $28.26
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Description: Human beings live together in societies which, by their very nature, give rise to institutions governing the behaviour and freedom of individuals. This raises important questions about how these institutions ought to function, and the extent to  More...

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Book details

List price: $63.95
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/16/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.562
Language: English

Human beings live together in societies which, by their very nature, give rise to institutions governing the behaviour and freedom of individuals. This raises important questions about how these institutions ought to function, and the extent to which actual systems of government succeed or fail in meeting these ideals. This Oxford Reader contains 140 key writings on political thought, covering issues about human nature and its relation to society, the extent to which the powers of the State are justified, the tension between liberty and rights, and the way resources should be distributed. Topics such as international relations, minority rights, democracy, socialism, and conservatism are also discussed, by contributors ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Foucault, Isaiah Berlin, and Martin Luther King.

Jonathan Wolff is a professor of philosophy and the director of the Centre for Philosophy, Justice and Health at university College London. He wrote a regular column for The Guardian in London, where he resides.

Michael Rosen is a poet, writer and broadcaster, and held the post of Children's laureate from 2007-2009.

Preface
Introduction
Human Nature
Introduction
The Natural State of Mankind
Aristotle: The State Exists By Nature
Thomas Hobbes: The Misery of the Natural Condition of
John Locke: The State of Nature and the State of War
Baron de Montesquieu: Fear and Peace
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Noble Savage
Robert Owen: Man's Character is Formed For Him
Karl Marx and FriedrichEngels: Man as a Productive Being
Charles Darwin: Natural Selection
Charles Darwin: The Advantage of Morality
Peter Kropotkin: Mutual Aid
Man's Nature and Woman's Nature
Plato: Women as Weaker Partners
Aristotle: Separate Spheres
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Likeness and Unlikeness of the Sexes
Mary Wollstonecraft: The Rights of Women
John Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women
Carol Gilligan: In a Different Voice
Alison M Jaggar: Socialist Feminism and The Standpoint of Women
The Justification of the State
What is the State?
John Locke: Political Power
Max Weber: The State and Coercion
The Social Contract
Thomas Hobbes: Creating Leviathan
John Locke: Express and Tacit Consent
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Natural Freedom and the Freedom of the Citizen
Immanuel Kant: The Hypothetical Contract
2c Against The Social Contract
David Hume: The Irrelevance of Consent
Jeremy Bentham: Utility as the True Foundation
G.W.F Hegel: The Priority of the State over The Individual
H.L.A. Hart: The Principle of Fairness
The Anarchist Response
Michael Bakunin: Science and the People
Robert Paul Wolff: The Conflict of Autonomy and Authority
Civil Disobedience
Plato: The Duty of Obedience
Henry David Thoreau: The Duty of Disobedience
Martin Luther King: An Unjust Law is No Law
John Rawls: Civil Disobedience
Democracy and Its Difficulties
Against Democracy
Plato: Ruling as a Skill
Frederick the Great: The Enlightened Despot
Democratic Ideals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The General Will
Immanuel Kant: Freedom and Equality
John Stuart Mill: The Democratic Citizen
John Rawls: Majority Rule
True and False Democracy
V.I. Lenin: Bourgeois and Proletarian Democracy
Carole Pateman: Participatory Democracy
Dangers in Democracy
Aristotle: Rule of the People and Rule of Law
James Madison: The Danger of Faction
Alexis de Tocqueville: Tyranny of the Majority
Democracy and Bureaucracy
Max Weber: Bureaucratic Administration
Vilfedo Pareto: Rule By Oligarchy
Separation of Powers
John Locke: Legislative, Executive, and Federative Powers
Baron de Montesquieu: The Ideal Constitution
Liberty and Rights
What is Liberty?
Benjamin Constant: The Liberty of the Ancients and the Liberty of the Moderns
Isaiah Berlin: Two Concepts of Liberty
Charles Taylor: In Defence of Positive Freedom
Ronald Dworkin: No Right to Liberty
Law and Morality
John Stuart Mill: One Simple Principle
James Fitzjames Stephen: The Consequences of Liberty
Partick Devlin: The Enforcement of Morals
H.L.A. Hart: The Changing Sense of Morality.
Toleration and Free Expression
John Locke: The Futility of Intolerance
Thomas Scanlon: Free Expression and the Authority of the State
Jeremy Waldron: The Satanic Verses
Catherine MacKinnon: Only Words
Virtue and Citizenship
Pericles: The Democratic Citizen
Aristotle: The Requirements of Citizenship
Niccolo Machiavelli: The Servility of the Moderns
Alexis de Tocqueville: The Nature of Modern Servitude
Quentin Skinner: The Republican Ideal of Political Liberty
Rights
Jeremy Bentham: Nonsense on Stilts
Karl Marx: The Rights of Egoistic Man
Robert Nozick: Rights as Side-Constraints
Ronald Dworkin: Taking Rights Seriously
Punishment
John Stuart Mill: In Favour of Capital Punishment
H.L.A. Hart: Punishment and Responsibility
Robert Nozick: Where Deterrence Theory Goes Wrong
Economic Justice
Private Property
John Locke: Labour as the Basis of Property
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Earth Belongs to Nobody
G.W.F Hegel: Property as Expression
Herbert Spencer: The Right to the Use of the Earth
Karl Marx: Money, the Universal Whore
Karl Marx: The True Foundation of Private Property
Sigmund Freud: Property and Aggression
R.H. Tawney: Reaping Without Sowing
Robert Nozick: Difficulties With Mixing Labour
The Market
Adam Smith: The Dangers of Government Interference
Karl Marx: Appearance and Reality
F.A. Hayek: Prices as A Code
Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman: The Tyranny of Controls
G.A. Cohen: Poverty as Lack of Freedom
Theories of Distributive Justice
Aesop: The Grasshopper and the Ants
Aristotle: Reciprocity
Aristotle: Equality and Inequality
Gerald Winstanley: The Common Stock
David Hume: The Impossibility of Equality
Karl Marx: From Each According to His Abilities, To Each According to His Needs
Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward
F.A. Hayek: The Impossibility of Planning
John Rawls: Two Principles of Justice
Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory
Ronald Dworkin: Equality of Resources
Justice Between Groups
Peace and War
Immanuel Kant: Perpetual Peace
Richard Cobden: The Civilizing Influence of Commerce
Michael Walzer: Just and Unjust War
Thomas Nagel: The Limits of Warfare
Nationalism
Isaiah Berlin: National Sentiment
Alasdair MacIntyre: Is Patriotism a Virtue?
Minority Rights
Thomas Hill: The Message of Affirmative Action
Avishai Margalit and Joseph Raz: National Self-Determination
Intergenerational Justice
Brian Barry: Justice Between Generations'
International Justice
Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality
Onora O'Neill: Lifeboat Earth
Alternatives to Liberalism
Liberal Theory Under Strain
Jurgen Habermas: Legitimation Crisis
Michael Walzer: Liberalism in Retreat
Michael Walzer: The Artificiality of Liberalism
Conservatism
Edmund Burke: Eternal Society
T.S. Eliot: The Transmission of Culture
Michael Oakeshott: On Being Conservative
Communitarianism
Charles Taylor: Identificiation and Subjectivity
Alasdair MacIntyre: Tradition and the Unity of a Life
Michael Sandel: Conceptions of Community
Socialism
Karl Marx: Work in Communist Society
Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx: The Realm of Freedom
Oscar Wilde: The Soul of Man Under Socialism
Ernest Mandel: Productive Activity
G.A. Cohen: Socialism and Equality of Opportunity
Post-Modernism
Friedrich Nietzsche:The Impulse Towards Justice
Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge
Richard Rorty: The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy
Progress and Civilization
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Effect of the Arts and Sciences
Adam Smith: Division of Labour
Friedrich Schiller: Fragmentation and Aesthetic Education
Karl Marx: Development of the Productive Forces
Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Our Self-Destructive Impulse
Friedrich Engels: Transition to Communism
Max Weber: Disenchantment
Karl Popper: The Utopian Method
Francis Fukuyama: The End of History
Appendix: Fundamental Political Documents
U.S. Declaration of Independence 1776
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 1789
The Bill of Rights 1789
The Gettysburg Address 1863
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

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