Practical Criticism A Study of Literary Judgment

ISBN-10: 0156736268
ISBN-13: 9780156736268
Edition: 1956
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Book details

List price: $27.95
Copyright year: 1956
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Publication date: 2/23/1956
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 4.50" wide x 7.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.638
Language: English

Introductory
The conditions of the experiment; Its aims; Fieldwork in comparative ideology
The theory of interpretation
Intellectual and emotional navigation
Critical principles: The indemonstrability of values
The ten difficulties of criticism
Documentation
Doctrine in poetry. Its expression
Noble thoughts
Metrical movements
Flabby thoughts
Truth: temporal perception
Mnemonic irrelevancies: eternity, socialism, the heart
American idiom: "an inspirational bit,"
Suggestion as falling in love
Rhyming
Other tests for poetry
"Messages,"
Moral qualms
Renderings
Correspondences of sound and sense
Japanese gardening
Misunderstanding
Anti-religious reaction
Stock responses and metre
Moral objections
Technical presuppositions and arbitrary renderings
The sound alone: pictures in poetry
Mixed metaphor
Mental prisms
One man's meat another's poison
The correspondence of form and content
Alternating personalities
"Difference in taste"
The ascribed rhythm
Stock responses
Obscurity
Incoherence in poetry
A splendid thought impossible to grasp
The "atmosphere of approach"
Timidity
Immortal beauty
The stock subject
Beliefs in poetry
Tricks of style
Sonnet form
Incapacity to construe
Sincerity and date
Vacuous resonances
Mental cleavage
Alternative readings
Blank incomprehension
Excuses
The "family constellation"
Analysis
Two-way prejudices
Sincerity
"Pathetic fallacies"
The Cathedral feeling
Sententiousness
Uplift
Unity and associations
Nature-poetry
Sentimentality and nauseation
Music in poetry
Metaphor
Popular songs
Preconceptions
Stock rhythms
Verse form
Closeness of reading
"Appalling risk of sentimentality"
Carelessness v. insincerity
The acceptance struggle
Private poetry
Occasional poetry
Irrelevancies: royalism
Republicanism
The drink problem
Matter and movement: communicative efficiency
Colour
Exhilaration
Metaphor
Drama
A problem of stock responses
Mnemonic pulls
Visualisation
Unpleasant images
Inhumanity
Technical presuppositions: ugly and delicate words
Cacophony
Onomatopoeia
Represented motion
Prosaicisms
Romanticism
Nonsense
Change of tone
Shallow moralising
Rapture
Personal emotion
Illicit expectations
Logic
Obscurity
Poetic diction
Strained trash
Bareness and balanced sanity
The middle kind of writing
Rumbling clouds
Symbolists
"Crystallisation": falling in love
Pathetic fallacy
Chemist's poetry
Prosody
Hypnotic movement
Swoon-reading
Double action of stock responses
Death the leveller
"Was what Christian charity?"
The mystery of the slaves
Conjectures
The monument problem
Joanna Southcott's Gladstone bag
Impudent sentimentality
Prosody
Sense and sound
Sanctimonious cliches
"Rude" in what sense?
Fatuous solemnity
Urbanity
Humour
Analysis
The Four Kinds of Meaning
The ten difficulties of criticism. The fundamental difficulty: making out the meaning
Four aspects of meaning: sense, feeling, tone, intention
Relative subordinations of these: in scientific writings
In popularisation
In political speeches
In conversation
Statements in poetry
Emotion criticism
Figurative Language
Causes of misunderstanding
The distraction of metre
Intuitive versus over-literal reading
Literalism and metaphor
Poetic liberty
Mixture in metaphor
Personification
Reasons for
Advantages of
Dangers of
Critical comparisons
The diversity of aims in poetry
Sense and Feeling
Interferences between kinds of meaning
Tone in poetry
As an index to "sense of proportion"
Sense and feeling: three types of interrelation
The pull of the context
Exerted in two ways: directly between feelings, indirectly through sense
Pre-analytic apprehension
Methods of improving apprehension
Verbal means of analysis for sense and feeling
The dictionary
Definition technique for sense
Our comparative helplessness with feeling
Projectile adjectives
Metaphor: sense metaphors and emotive metaphors
Possibilities of training
Poetic Form
Difficulty of apprehending form due partly to bad assumptions
The regularity myth
Variation about a norm
But rhythm goes deeper than the ear
Inherent rhythm and ascribed rhythm
Inherent rhythm as a necessary and important skeleton
Damage done by the regularity myth and by the independence notion
The danger of neglecting sound
Reading aloud
Irrelevant Associations and Stock Responses
Erratic imagery
Visualisers
Irrelevance in general
Associations with other poems
The personal situation of the reader
Stock responses: their omnipresence
Their utility
Demarcation of their proper field
As systems of energy
As distorting agents
As ground for complaint against variation
The stock response as the poem itself
Resultant popularity
Good and bad stock responses: their origins
Withdrawal from experience by deprivation, moral disaster, convention, intellectuality
Loss in transmission of ideas
Home-made notions and genius
And silliness
The poet and stock ideas
Sentimentality and Inhibition
"Sentimental" as an abusive gesture
As uttering a vague thought
As uttering a precise thought: over-facility of emotion
As equivalent to "crude"
As deriving from "sentiment"
Sentiments
Their over-persistence and warping
Definition of "sentimental" in the third sense
Sentimentality in readers and in poetry
Causes of
Subject and treatment
The justification of the response
Conventional metaphors and sentimentality
Autogenous emotions
Inhibition as the complement of sentimentality
Necessity of
Causes of
Cure of
Doctrine in Poetry
Opposition between readers' and poets' beliefs
Difficulty the same whether the belief is important or not
Insufficiency of the "poetic fiction" solution
Assumptions: intellectual and emotional
Distinction between them
"Justification" for each kind
Logic and choice
Adjustment of emotional and intellectual claims
Appearance of insincerity
Sincerity as absense of self-deception
As genuineness
Spontaneity and so-phistication
Sincerity as self-completion
Dependent upon a fundamental need
Sincerity and intuition
Improvement in sincerity
Poetry as an exercise in sincerity
Technical Presuppositions and Critical Preconceptions
Our expectations from poetry
Confusions between means and ends
Encouraged by the language of criticism
The Summation of details blunder
No critical theory is directly useful
Examples: the subject and message tests
The "lilt" quest
Critical dogmas as primitive superstitions
Their duplicity
The disablement of judgment
The rule of choice
Principles only protective
Critical infallibility
Summary and Recommendations
Culture in the Protocols
Standing of writers
Immaturity
Lack of reading
Inability to construe
Stock responses
Preconceptions
Bewilderment
Authority
Variability
General values
The Services of Psychology
Abuse of psychology
Profanation
Prudential speech
Understanding
Confusions
Further dissection
Order
Suggestions Towards a Remedy
The teaching of English
Practical suggestions
The decline in speech
Prose
Critical fog
Subjectivity
Humility
Appendix A
Further notes on meaning
Intention
Aesthetic adjectives
Rhythm and Prosody
Visual images
Appendix B
The relative popularity of the poems
Appendix C
Authorship of the poems
The reader is recommended not to consult this Appendix until he has read through Part II.
Appendix D
The Poems as originally set before the readers
Index

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