Using Observation in Early Childhood Education

ISBN-10: 013888496X
ISBN-13: 9780138884963
Edition: 2004
Authors: Marian Marion
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Description: Written by a prolific, well-respected author, this book teaches how to observe, document, and assess children's development and progress--emphasizing how powerful ethical, responsible observation can be in a teacher's professional life. Focusing on  More...

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Book details

List price: $94.20
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/23/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 320
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Written by a prolific, well-respected author, this book teaches how to observe, document, and assess children's development and progress--emphasizing how powerful ethical, responsible observation can be in a teacher's professional life. Focusing on observations as an intrinsic part of authentic assessment, the author advocates a protective, respectful attitude toward it. Provides an overview of various informal and formal observation and assessment strategies, as well as instruction in how to embed observation into the daily routine of the early childhood classroom. Explores ways to prevent problems, ways to solve problems, and ways to work cooperatively with parents. Included is coverage of the ethics of observation and the pros and cons of standardized testing as it relates to observation and assessment. For early childhood teachers.

The Power, Process, and Ethics of Observation in Early Childhood
The Power of Observation in Early Childhood
There Is Power in Observation
Observation Facilitates Learning About Child Development
Observation Is Preferable to Formal Testing of Young Children
Observation Is the First Step in Constructing Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum and Instructional Methods
Observation Is the First Step in Making Wise Child Guidance Decisions
Observation Enables Teachers to Reflect on Their Own Practices
Observation Is the Key to Preventing or Solving Many Problems
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
The Ethics and Process of Observing
Hannah's Teacher
The Ethics of Observation
Protect Children's Privacy
Develop and Communicate Policies About Confidentiality of Observations
Avoid Triangulation
Know When You Are Required to Divulge Confidential Information
The Process of Observing
Observation Is an Active Process
Useful Observation Is Systematic
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Methods of Observing and Documenting Progress and Development in Early Childhood
Anecdotal Records: A Short Narrative Method of Observation
Anecdotal Records
Anecdotal Records-Description
Use Anecdotal Records for Preplanned or Spontaneous Observations
Guidelines for Writing Anecdotal Records (Bergen, 1997)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Anecodtal Records
Advantages of Anecdotal Records
Disadvantages of Anecdotal Records
Using Anecdotal Records Effectively
Organize the Anecdotes Well
Have a Clear Plan for Analyzing and Using Information from Anecdotes
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Running Records: A Longer Narrative Method of Observation
Running Records
Running Record: Description
A Running Record Is a Narrative Form of Observation
A Running Record Is an Open Form of Observation
A Running Record Is a Longer Form of Observation Than an Anecdotal Record
Observers Do Not Participate in Activities When Doing Running Records
Format of a Running Record
Suggested Form
Parts of the Running Record Report: Explanation
Establish a Focus for Running Records
Reasons for Having a Focus
Selecting the Focus
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observing with Running Records
Disadvantages of Running Records
Advantages of Running Records
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Checklists and Rating Scales: Nonnarrative Methods for Observing Development and Progress
Checklists
Description
Different Ways to Use Checklists
Guidelines for Developing Checklists
Advantages of Using Checklists
Disadvantages of Using Checklists
Rating Scales
Description
Types of Rating Scales
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Rating Scales
Suggestions for Increasing the Power of Checklists and Rating Scales
Combine Checklists and Rating Scales with Anecdotal or Running Records
Add Space to Checklist and Rating Scale Forms for Comments, Date, Summary
Develop a Checklist or Rating Scale Plan
Place Observations and Assessments on a Timeline
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Documenting and Reporting Development and Progress: Children's Products, Observation Reports, and Portfolios
Documenting and Reporting Development and Progress
Documentation
Reporting
Different Ways to Document and Report Development and Progress
Document and Report with Children's Products and Work Samples
Document and Report with Documentary Displays
Document and Report with Observation Reports
Portfolios: Pulling It All Together
What Is a Portfolio?
Benefits of Portfolios
Benefits of Portfolios for Children
Benefits of Portfolios for Teachers
Benefits of Portfolios for Parents
Types of Portfolios
Current-Year Portfolio
Permanent Portfolio
Contents of Portfolios
Child-Produced Materials
Teacher-Produced Materials
Items Produced by Others
Portfolios Are Useful for All Young Children
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Using Observation
Observing Behavior: Cracking the Code
Authoritative Caregiving and Observation (Case Study)
Reasons for Observing Children's Behavior
Children Communicate with Behavior
Observe Behavior to Discover and Build on Children's Strengths
Observe Behavior to Assess Special Needs
Observe Behavior as the First Step in Dealing with Challenging Behavior
Observe Behavior to Recognize Children's Feelings, Signs of Stress, or Signs of Child Abuse and Neglect
Who, What, When, Where, Why: Five Questions About Behavior
Background of Michael's Behavior
Synopsis of Observations of Michael's Behavior
Who Was Involved in This Behavior?
What Happened?
When Did the Behavior Occur?
Where Does the Behavior Typically Take Place?
Why Does the Child Behave This Way?
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Using the Eclectic Approach to Observe Motor and Cognitive Development
An Observation and Assessment Dilemma
Purposes of This Chapter
Explain the Eclectic Approach to Observing Development
Describe, Explain, and Give Examples of Different Categories of Observation and Assessment Strategies
Reiterate Major Reasons for Observing Children's Development
Categories of Observation and Assessment Strategies
Standardized Assessment Instruments
Description and Purpose: Standardized Tests
Problems with Standardized Tests
Teacher-Made and Ready-Made Observation and Assessment Tools
Ready-Made Assessment Instruments
Teacher-Made Observation Instruments
Observing and Assessing Motor Development
Definitions
Different Children, Different Levels of Motor Development
Observing the Basics About Large Motor Development
Going Beyond the Basics in Assessing Motor Development
Identify Developmental Lags in Motor Skills
An Example of a Standardized Test for Assessing Motor Development: Cratty's Perceptual-Motor Behaviors Checklist
Teacher-Made Observation Instruments for Assessing Motor Development
A Ready-Made Informal Observation Instrument for Assessing Motor Development: Williams's Preschool Motor Development Checklist
A Ready-Made Observation Instrument: Project Spectrum
Authentic Assessment of Motor Skill
Wise Use of Observation in Action
Observing Cognitive Development
Major Cognitive Ability: 2- to 6-Year-Olds Can Represent Experiences
Limitations on Preoperational Thinking
Concrete Operational Stage: Major Changes in Cognition
Memory
Definitions
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Using the Eclectic Approach to Observe Emotional and Social Development
Children's Feelings: Emotional Development
Definition of Emotion
Basic Emotions
Self-Conscious Emotions
Emotional Regulation
Emotional Intelligence
The Brain's Role in Emotional Regulation and Emotional Intelligence
A Child's Feelings: Anger as an Example
Anger Is a Basic Emotion, Perceived as Unpleasant
What Causes Anger for Children?
How Do Children Express Anger?
Children's Peer Relationships: Their Role in Social Development
Three Levels of Peer Experiences: Interactions, Relationships, Groups
Children's Interactions
Children's Relationships
Children's Groups
Social Competence
Vygotsky and Piaget: A Constructivist Look at the Value of Peer Relationships
Social Skills
Play
Reframing Our Perspective on Sequences of Play
Snapshots of Play
Observing Emotional and Social Development
Social Attributes Checklist: A Ready-Made Instrument
Teacher-Made Instruments: Mr. Nellis Uses Checklists, Anecdoral Records, and Photographs
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Using Observation to Prevent and Solve Problems
Adopting a Problem-Solving Perspective
Reflective Teachers Acknowledge That Problems Exist
Reflective Teachers Are Professional and Act Ethically When Solving Problems
Reflective Teachers Responsibly Manage Emotions When Solving Problems
Reflective Teachers Value Observation as a Tool in Problem Solving
Problem Solving in Action
Problem Solving in Action: Mrs. Vargas (Preschool)
The Problem: Child Abuse and Neglect
How Mrs. Vargas Used Observation: Checklist and Anecdotal Records
Problem Solving in Action: Mr. Claiborne (First Grade)
The Problem: A Child's Fear
How Mr. Claiborne Used Observation: Running Record and Anecdotal Records
Problem Solving in Action: Mr. Nellis (K-2)
The Problem: Child Hurts Others When She Is Angry
How Mr. Nellis Used Observation: Anecdotal Records and a Rating Scale
Problem Solving in Action: Mr. Lee (Third and Fourth Grades)
The Problem: Minimize Stress for a Child Who Moves to a New School
How Mr. Lee Used Observation: Checklist
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Using Observation to Become a Reflective Practitioner
Professional Development Plans: Oaklawn School (Case Study)
Reflection in Teaching
What Is Reflection in Teaching?
Reflection: A Professional Responsibility
Different Teachers, Different Beliefs About Self-Reflection
Levels of Reflection in Teaching
School Environments That Encourage Reflective Teaching
Observation: The Foundation of Reflection in Teaching
ECERS-R (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised)
Description
Administration and Scoring of ECERS-R
APEEC (Assessment of Practices in Early Elementary Classrooms)
Description
Administration and Scoring of APEEC
Reflection in Action
Group Action Plan
Mr. Lee: Reflecting on Conflict Resolution
Mr. Nellis's Action Plan
Mr. Nellis Reflects
Activities to Help You Construct Knowledge and Skills in Observing
References
Web Sites Related to This Chapter
Appendix A
Suggestions for Organizing Periodic and Final Observation Reports
Outline for Periodic or Final Observation Reports for an Individual Child
Appendix B
Suggested Items to Look for in Observing a Play Material or Activity
Appendix C
Selected Observation Forms Used in This Textbook
Name Index
Subject Index

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