Nature and Properties of Soils

ISBN-10: 0138524440
ISBN-13: 9780138524449
Edition: 12th 1999
List price: $123.33
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Description: Nature and Properties of Soil is a broad textbook for introductory soil courses in agronomy and soil science. It emphasizes soils as part of the geosystem.

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Book details

List price: $123.33
Edition: 12th
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/15/1998
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 881
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 4.532
Language: English

Nature and Properties of Soil is a broad textbook for introductory soil courses in agronomy and soil science. It emphasizes soils as part of the geosystem.

Preface
The Soils Around Us
Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem
Medium for Plant Growth
Regulator of Water Supplies
Recycler of Raw Materials
Habitat for Soil Organisms
Engineering Medium
Soil as Environmental Interface
Soil as a Natural Body
The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons)
Topsoil and Subsoil
Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life
Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils
Soil Organic Matter
Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution
Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases
Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients
Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots
Soil Quality, Degradation, and Resilience
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Formation of Soils from Parent Materials
Weathering of Rocks and Minerals
Physical Weathering (Disintegration)
Biogeochemical Weathering
Factors Influencing Soil Formation
Parent Materials
Residual Parent Material
Colluvial Debris
Alluvial Stream Deposits
Marine Sediments
Parent Materials Transported by Glacial Ice and Meltwaters
Parent Materials Transported by Wind
Organic Deposits
Climate
Biota: Living Organisms
Topography
Time
Four Basic Processes of Soil Formation
The Soil Profile
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Classification
Concept of Individual Soils
Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy
Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy
Soil Orders
Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development)
Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon)
Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils)
Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning)
Histisols (Organic Soils without Permafrost)
Aridisols (Dry Soils)
Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays)
Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)
Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases)
Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases)
Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Low Bases)
Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered)
Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Architecture and Physical Properties
Soil Color
Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles)
Soil Textural Classes
Structure of Mineral Soils
Soil Density
Pore Space of Mineral Soils
Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates
Tillage and Structural Management of Soils
Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Water: Characteristics and Behavior
Structure and Related Properties of Water
Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water
Soil Water Energy Concepts
Soil Water Content and Soil Water Potential
The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil
Infiltration and Percolation
Water Vapor Movement in Soils
Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness
Factors Affecting Amount of Plant-Available Soil Water
Mechanisms by Which Plants Are Supplied with Water
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil and the Hydrologic Cycle
The Global Hydrologic Cycle
Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water
The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
Efficiency of Water Use
Control of Evapotranspiration (ET)
Control of Surface Evaporation (E)
Liquid Losses of Water from the Soil
Percolation and Groundwaters
Enhancing Soil Drainage
Septic Tank Drain Fields
Irrigation Principles and Practices
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Aeration and Temperature
Soil Aeration--The Process
Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential
Factors Affecting Soil Aeration
Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration
Aeration in Relation to Soil and Plant Management
Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils
Processes Affected by Soil Temperature
Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy
Thermal Properties of Soils
Soil Temperature Control
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Colloids: Seat of Soil Chemical and Physical Activity
General Properties and Types of Soil Colloids
Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure
Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays
Structural Characteristics of Nonsilicate Colloids
Genesis and Geographic Distribution of Soil Colloids
Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids
Adsorption of Cations and Anions
Cation Exchange Reactions
Cation Exchange Capacity
Exchangeable Cations in Field Soil
Anion Exchange
Sorption of Pesticides and Groundwater Contamination
Binding of Biomolecules to Clay and Humus
Physical Implications of Swelling-Type Clays
Environmental Uses of Swelling-Type Clays
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Acidity
The Process of Soil Acidification
Role of Aluminum in Soil Acidity
Pools of Soil Acidity
Buffering of pH in Soils
Determination of Soil pH
Human-Influenced Soil Acidification
Biological Effects of Soil pH
Raising Soil pH by Liming
Alternative Ways to Ameliorate the III Effects of Soil Acidity
Lowering Soil pH
Calcium and Magnesium as Plant Nutrients
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soils of Dry Regions: Alkalinity, Salinity, and Sodicity
Causes of Alkalinity: High Soil pH
Characteristics and Problems of Alkaline Soils
Development of Salt-Affected Soils
Measuring Salinity and Sodicity
Classes of Salt-Affected Soils
Growth of Plants on Salt-Affected Soils
Water-Quality Considerations for Irrigation
Reclamation of Saline Soils
Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils
Management of Reclaimed Soils
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Organisms and Ecology of the Soil
The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil
Organisms in Action
Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity
Earthworms
Ants and Termites
Soil Microanimals
Roots of Higher Plants
Soil Algae
Soil Fungi
Soil Bacteria
Soil Actinomycetes
Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms
Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms
Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants
Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms
Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Organic Matter
The Global Carbon Cycle
The Process of Decomposition in Soils
Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization
Humus: Genesis and Nature
Composts and Composting
Direct Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth
Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment
Management of Amount and Quality of Soil Organic Matter
Carbon Balance in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System
Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels
Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
Organic Soils (Histosols)
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Nitrogen and Sulfur Economy of Soils
Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development
Origin and Distribution of Nitrogen
The Nitrogen Cycle
Immobilization and Mineralization
Soluble Organic Nitrogen
Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals
Ammonia Volatilization
Nitrification
The Nitrate Leaching Problem
Gaseous Losses by Denitrification
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes
Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes
Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
Addition of Nitrogen to Soil in Precipitation
Reactions of Nitrogen Fertilizers
Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen in Agriculture
Importance of Sulfur
Natural Sources of Sulfur
The Sulfur Cycle
Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils
Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction
Sulfur Retention and Exchange
Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Phosphorus and Potassium
Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility
Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality
The Phosphorus Cycle
Organic Phosphorus in Soils
Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils
Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils
Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values
Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils
Plant Genetics and Phosphorus Availability
Practical Control of Phosphorus in Soils
Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles
Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition
The Potassium Cycle
The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility
Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils
Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils
Practical Aspects of Potassium Management
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements
Deficiency Versus Toxicity
Role of the Micronutrients
Source of Micronutrients
General Conditions Conducive to Trace Element Deficiency/Toxicity
Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Cations
Organic Compounds as Chelates
Factors Influencing the Availability of the Trace Element Anions
Need for Nutrient Balance
Trace Element Cleanup and Metal Hyperaccumulators
Soil Management and Micronutrient Needs
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Practical Nutrient Management
Goals of Nutrient Management
Environmental Quality
Nutrient Resources and Cycles
Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures
Industrial and Municipal By-Products
Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources
Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers
Fertilizer Application Methods
Timing of Fertilizer Application
Diagnostic Tools and Methods
Soil Analysis
Site-Specific Nutrient Management
Site-Index Approach to Phosphorus Management
Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soil Erosion and Its Control
Significance of Soil Erosion and Land Degradation
On-Site and Off-Site Effects of Accelerated Soil Erosion
Mechanics of Water Erosion
Models to Predict the Extent of Water-Induced Erosion
Factors Affecting Interrill and Rill Erosion
Conservation Tillage
Vegetative Barriers
Control of Gully Erosion and Mass Wasting
Control of Accelerated Erosion on Range and Forest Land
Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites
Wind Erosion: Importance and Factors Affecting It
Predicting and Controlling Wind Erosion
Land Capability Classification as a Guide to Conservation
Progress in Soil Conservation
Real Value of Soil Conservation
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Soils and Chemical Pollution
Toxic Organic Chemicals
Kinds of Organic Contaminants
Behavior of Organic Chemicals in Soil
Effects of Pesticides on Soil Organisms
Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Chemicals
Contamination with Toxic Inorganic Substances
Potential Hazards of Chemicals in Sewage Sludge
Reactions of Inorganic Contaminants in Soils
Prevention and Elimination of Inorganic Chemical Contamination
Landfills
Radionuclides in Soil
Radon Gas from Soils
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Geographic Soils Information
Soil Spatial Variability in the Field
Techniques and Tools for Mapping Soils
Modern Technology for Soil Investigations
Remote Sensing Tools for Soils Investigations
Air Photos
Satellite Imagery
Soil Surveys
The County Soil Survey Report and Its Utilization
Geographic Information Systems
GIS, GPS, and Site-Specific Agriculture
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Global Soil Quality as Affected by Human Activities
The Concept of Soil Quality/Soil Health
Soil Resistance and Resilience
Sustaining Biological Productivity
The Population Explosion
Intensified Agroecosystems--The Green Revolution
Effects of Intensified Agroecosystems on Soil Quality or Health
Forced Production Intensification
Prospects for the Future
Modified Intensive Agroecosystems
Improving Low-Yielding Agricultural Systems
Improving Soil Quality in sub-Saharan Africa
Improving Soil Quality in Asia and Latin America
Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Canadian and FAO Soil Classification Systems
SI Units, Conversion Factors, and Periodic Table of the Elements
Glossary
Index

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