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Preface | |

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The Nature of Thermodynamics | |

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What is thermodynamics? | |

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Definitions | |

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The kilomole | |

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Limits of the continuum | |

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More definitions | |

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Units | |

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Temperature and the zeroth law of thermodynamics | |

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Temperature scales | |

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Problems | |

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Equations of State | |

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Introduction | |

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Equation of state of an ideal gas | |

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Van der Waals' equation for a real gas | |

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P-v-T surfaces for real substances | |

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Expansivity and compressibility | |

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An application | |

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Problems | |

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The First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Configuration work | |

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Dissipative work | |

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Adiabatic work and internal energy | |

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Heat | |

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Units of heat | |

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The mechanical equivalent of heat | |

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Summary of the first law | |

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Some calculations of work | |

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Problems | |

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Applications of the First Law | |

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Heat capacity | |

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Mayer's equation | |

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Enthalpy and heats of transformation | |

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Relationships involving enthalpy | |

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Comparison of u and h | |

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Work done in an adiabatic process | |

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Problems | |

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Consequences of the First Law | |

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The Gay-Lussac-Joule experiment | |

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The Joule-Thomson experiment | |

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Heat engines and the Carnot cycle | |

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Problems | |

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Introduction | |

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The mathematical concept of entropy | |

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Irreversible processes | |

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Carnot's theorem | |

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The Clausius inequality and the second law | |

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Entropy and available energy | |

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Absolute temperature | |

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Combined first and second laws | |

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Problems | |

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Applications of the Second Law | |

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Entropy changes in reversible processes | |

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Temperature-entropy diagrams | |

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Entropy change of the surroundings for a reversible process | |

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Entropy change for an ideal gas | |

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The Tds equations | |

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Entropy change in irreversible processes | |

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Free expansion of an ideal gas | |

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Entropy change for a liquid or solid | |

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Problems | |

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Thermodynamic Potentials | |

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Introduction | |

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The Legendre transformation | |

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Definition of the thermodynamic potentials | |

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The Maxwell relations | |

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The Helmholtz function | |

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The Gibbs function | |

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Application of the Gibbs function to phase transitions | |

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An application of the Maxwell relations | |

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Conditions of stable equilibrium | |

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Problems | |

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The Chemical Potential and Open Systems | |

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The chemical potential | |

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Phase equilibrium | |

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The Gibbs phase rule | |

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Chemical reactions | |

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Mixing processes | |

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Problems | |

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The Third Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Statements of the third law | |

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Methods of cooling | |

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Equivalence of the statements | |

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Consequences of the third law | |

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Problems | |

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The Kinetic Theory of Gases | |

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Basic assumptions | |

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Molecular flux | |

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Gas pressure and the ideal gas law | |

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Equipartition of energy | |

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Specific heat capacity of an ideal gas | |

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Distribution of molecular speeds | |

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Mean free path and collision frequency | |

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Effusion | |

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Transport processes | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Thermodynamics | |

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Introduction | |

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Coin-tossing experiment | |

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Assembly of distinguishable particles | |

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Thermodynamic probability and entropy | |

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Quantum states and energy levels | |

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Density of quantum states | |

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Problems | |

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Classical and Quantum Statistics | |

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Boltzmann statistics | |

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The method of Lagrange multipliers | |

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The Boltzmann distribution | |

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The Fermi-Dirac distribution | |

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The Bose-Einstein distribution | |

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Dilute gases and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution | |

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The connection between classical and statistical thermodynamics | |

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Comparison of the distributions | |

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Alternative statistical models | |

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Problems | |

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The Classical Statistical Treatment of an Ideal Gas | |

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Thermodynamic properties from the partition function | |

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Partition function for a gas | |

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Properties of a monatomic ideal gas | |

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Applicability of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution | |

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Distribution of molecular speeds | |

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Equipartition of energy | |

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Entropy change of mixing revisited | |

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Maxwell's demon | |

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Problems | |

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The Heat Capacity of a Diatomic Gas | |

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Introduction | |

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The quantized linear oscillator | |

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Vibrational modes of diatomic molecules | |

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Rotational modes of diatomic molecules | |

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Electronic excitation | |

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The total heat capacity | |

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Problems | |

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The Heat Capacity of a Solid | |

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Introduction | |

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Einstein's theory of the heat capacity of a solid | |

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Debye's theory of the heat capacity of a solid | |

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Problems | |

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The Thermodynamics of Magnetism | |

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Introduction | |

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Paramagnetism | |

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Properties of a spin-1/2 paramagnet | |

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Adiabatic demagnetization | |

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Negative temperature | |

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Ferromagnetism | |

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Problems | |

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Bose-Einstein Gases | |

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Blackbody radiation | |

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Properties of a photon gas | |

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Bose-Einstein condensation | |

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Properties of a boson gas | |

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Application to liquid helium | |

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Problems | |

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Fermi-Dirac Gases | |

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The Fermi energy | |

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The calculation of [mu](T) | |

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Free electrons in a metal | |

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Properties of a fermion gas | |

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Application to white dwarf stars | |

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Problems | |

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Information Theory | |

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Introduction | |

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Uncertainty and information | |

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Unit of information | |

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Maximum entropy | |

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The connection to statistical thermodynamics | |

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Information theory and the laws of thermodynamics | |

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Maxwell's demon exorcised | |

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Problems | |

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Appendices | |

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Review of Partial Differentiation | |

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Partial derivatives | |

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Exact and inexact differentials | |

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Problems | |

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Stirling's Approximation | |

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Alternative Approach To Finding the Boltzmann Distribution | |

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Various Integrals | |

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Bibliography | |

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Classical thermodynamics | |

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Kinetic theory of gases | |

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Statistical mechanics | |

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Special topics | |

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Answers to selected problems | |

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Index | |