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Preface | |

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Acknowledgments | |

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About the Author | |

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Porosity of Reservoir Rocks | |

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Introduction | |

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Total Porosity and Effective Porosity | |

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Sources of Porosity Data | |

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Applications of Porosity Data | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Permeability and Relative Permeability | |

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Introduction | |

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Sources of Permeability Data | |

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Relative Permeability | |

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Sources of Relative Permeability Data | |

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Three-Phase Relative Permeability | |

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Applications of Permeability and Relative Permeability Data | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Reservoir Fluid Saturations | |

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Introduction | |

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Determination of Water Saturations | |

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Determination of Reservoir Productive Intervals | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Properties of Reservoir Fluids | |

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Introduction | |

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Phase Diagrams | |

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Gas and Gas-Condensate Properties | |

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Pseudo-critical Properties of Gas Mixtures | |

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Wet Gas and Gas Condensate | |

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Correlations for Gas Compressibility Factor | |

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Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) | |

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Gas Density | |

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Gas Viscosity | |

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Gas Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility | |

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Correlations for Calculation of Oil PVT Properties | |

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Correlations for Calculation of Water PVT Properties | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Reservoir Fluid Sampling and PVT Laboratory Measurements | |

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Overview of Reservoir Fluid Sampling | |

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Reservoir Type and State | |

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Well Conditioning | |

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Subsurface Sampling Methods and Tools | |

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Wireline Formation Testers | |

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PVT Laboratory Measurements | |

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Applications of Laboratory PVT Measurements | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Black Oil Sample | |

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Reservoir Fluid Summary | |

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Calculated Analysis of Reservoir Fluid | |

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Pressure-Volume Properties at 212Â°F (Constant Composition Expansion) | |

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Differential Liberation at 212Â°F | |

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Gas Differentially Liberated at 212Â°F | |

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Viscosity Data at 212Â°F | |

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Comparison of Reservoir Oil Flash Liberation Tests | |

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Typical Reservoir Fluid Study for a Gas Condensate Sample | |

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Summary of Reservoir Data and Surface Sampling Conditions | |

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Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Gas at 1140 psig and 92Â°F | |

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Chromatograph Analysis of Separator Liquid at 1140 psig and 92Â°F | |

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Composition of Reservoir Fluid (Calculated) | |

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Measured Saturation Pressures from Stepwise Recombinations at 267Â°F | |

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Pressure-Volume Properties of Reservoir Fluid at 267Â°F (or CCE) | |

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Depletion Study at 267Â°F: Hydrocarbon Analyses of Produced Wellstream (Mole %) | |

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Retrograde Condensation During Gas Depletion at 267Â°F | |

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PVT Properties Predictions from Equations of State | |

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Historical Introduction to Equations of State (EOS) | |

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Van der Waals (vdW) EOS | |

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Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS | |

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Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS | |

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Phase Equilibrium of Mixtures | |

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Roots from Cubic EOS | |

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Volume Translation | |

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Two-Phase Flash Calculation | |

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Bubble Point and Dew Point Pressure Calculations | |

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Characterization of Hydrocarbon Plus Fractions | |

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Phase Equilibrium Predictions with Equations of State | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Superscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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The General Material Balance Equation | |

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Introduction | |

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Derivation of the General Material Balance Equation (GMBE) | |

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The GMBE for Gas Reservoirs | |

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Discussion on the Application of the GMBE | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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Gas Reservoirs | |

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Introduction | |

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Volumetric Gas Reservoirs | |

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Gas Reservoirs with Water Influx | |

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Water Influx Models | |

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Geopressured Gas Reservoirs | |

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Case Histories of Two Gas Reservoirs | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Correlations for Estimating Residual Gas Saturations for Gas Reservoirs under Water Influx | |

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Dimensionless Pressure for Finite and Infinite Aquifers | |

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Dimensionless Pressure for Infinite Aquifers | |

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Oil Reservoirs | |

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Introduction | |

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Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms | |

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Gravity Drainage Mechanism | |

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Volumetric Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs | |

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Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx | |

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Volumetric Saturated Oil Reservoirs | |

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Material Balance Approach for Saturated Oil Reservoirs with Water Influx | |

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Case History of Manatee Reservoirs | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs | |

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Introduction | |

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Fluid Types | |

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Definition of Fluid Flow Regimes | |

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Darcy Fluid Flow Equation | |

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Radial Forms of the Darcy Equation | |

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Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Radial Form | |

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Derivation of Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids | |

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Solutions of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Slightly Compressible Fluids | |

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Derivation of the Radial Diffusivity Equation for Compressible Fluids | |

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Transformation of the Gas Diffusivity Equation with Real Gas Pseudo-Pressure Concept | |

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The Superposition Principle | |

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Well Productivity Index | |

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Well Injectivity Index | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Chart for Exponential Integral | |

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Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary | |

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Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary | |

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Tabulation of pD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Constant Pressure Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Rate at Inner Boundary | |

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Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Infinite Reservoirs with Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary | |

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Tabulation of QD vs tD for Radial Flow, Finite Reservoirs with Closed Outer Boundary and Constant Terminal Pressure at Inner Boundary | |

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Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods | |

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Introduction | |

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Basic Concepts in Well Test Analysis | |

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Line Source Well, Infinite Reservoir Solution of the Diffusivity Equation with Skin Factor | |

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Well Test Analyses with Straightline Methods | |

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Special Topics in Well Test Analyses | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Well Test Analysis: Type Curves | |

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Introduction | |

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What Are Type Curves? | |

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Gringarten Type Curves | |

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Unit-Slope Line | |

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Bourdet Derivative Type Curves | |

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Agarwal Equivalent Time | |

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Type-Curve Matching | |

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Procedures for Manual Application of Type-Curve Matching in Well Test Analysis | |

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Stages of the Type-Curve Matching Procedures | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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Characteristic Shapes of Pressure and Pressure-Derivative Curves for Selected Well, Reservoir, and Boundary Models | |

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Buildup Test Data for Example 12.1 | |

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Calculation of Pressure Derivatives | |

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Well Test Analysis: Hydraulically Fractured Wells and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs | |

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Introduction | |

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Hydraulically Fractured Wells | |

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Definition of Dimensionless Variables for Fractured Wells | |

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Flow Regimes in Fractured Wells | |

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Fractured Well Flow Models | |

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Fractured Well Test Analysis: Straightline Methods | |

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Fractured Well Test Analysis: Type-Curve Matching | |

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Naturally Fractured Reservoirs | |

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Naturally Fractured Reservoir Models | |

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Well Test Analysis in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Based on Double Porosity Model | |

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Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Straightline Method s | |

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Well Test Analysis in NFRs: Type Curves | |

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Procedure for Analysis of Well Test from NFRs Assuming Double Porosity Behavior | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Well Test Analysis: Deconvolution Concepts | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is Deconvolution? | |

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The Pressure-Rate Deconvolution Mod el | |

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Application of Deconvolution to Pressure-Rate Data | |

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Examples on the Application of the von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Real Well Test Data | |

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General Guidelines for Application of von Schroeter Deconvolution Algorithm to Pressure-Rate Data from Well Tests | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Immiscible Fluid Displacement | |

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Introduction | |

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Basic Concepts in Immiscible Fluid Displacement | |

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Fractional Flow Equations | |

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The Buckley-Leverett Equation | |

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The Welge Method | |

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Summary | |

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Nomenclature | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Secondary Recovery Methods | |

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Introduction | |

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Waterflooding | |

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Gasflooding | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Enhanced Oil Recovery | |

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Introduction | |

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EOR Processes | |

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EOR Screening Criteria | |

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Miscible Gas Injection Processes | |

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Methods for Determination of MMP or MME for Gasfloods | |

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Types of Miscible Gas Flooding | |

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Chemical Flooding Processes | |

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Thermal Processes | |

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Implementation of EOR Projects | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization | |

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Introduction | |

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Sources of Data for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization | |

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Data Quality Control and Quality Assurance | |

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Scale and Integration of Data | |

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General Procedure for Geologic Modeling and Reservoir Characterization | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Reservoir Simulation | |

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Introduction | |

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Derivation of the Continuity Equation in Rectangular Form | |

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Flow Equations for Three-Phase Flow of Oil, Water, and Gas | |

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Basic Concepts, Terms, and Methods in Reservoir Simulation | |

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General Structure of Flow Reservoir Models | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Subscripts | |

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Abbreviations | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Reservoir Management | |

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Introduction | |

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Reservoir Management Principles | |

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Case Histories Demonstrating Applications of Reservoir Management Principles | |

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References | |

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General Reading | |

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Index 745 | |