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Our Minds, Our Memories Enhancing Thinking and Learning at All Ages

ISBN-10: 0137013434
ISBN-13: 9780137013432
Edition: 2011
List price: $71.30 Buy it from $36.50
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Book details

List price: $71.30
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 9/24/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 336
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Preface
What You Don't Know (About Knowing) Can Hurt You
Common Misconceptions About Thinking and Memory
Missions Impossible and Possible: Knowing Your Limits
We Aren't Video Cameras or Tape Recorders
We're Pattern Detectors and Summarizers
We're Also Meaning Makers
Billions Upon Billions of Brain Cells: The Hardware of Thinking and Learning
Gray Anatomy: Neurons and Their Synapses
White Matter Also Matters: Glial Cells
The Brain's Division of Labor (Not as Much as You Might Think)
Parts of the Brain and Their Specialties
And Rather Than Either/Or: the Two Hemispheres of the Brain
Tots and Teens are Still A Bit Green: How the Brain Changes
With Age
Building the Foundation: the Prenatal Period
Adapting to the Local Environment: Infancy and Early Childhood
Fine-Tuning the System: Middle Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood
Learning New Tricks as Old Dogs: Middle Age and the Senior Years
Enhancing Brainpower
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
We're Builders, Not Sponges: Learning as Sense Making
Sensing Versus Sense Making: Sensation Does Not Equal
Perception
What You See Isn't Exactly What You Get: Sense Making in Vision
Did You Say What I Think You Said? Sense Making in Audition
The Whole is More Than the Sum of Its Parts: Constructing
Knowledge
Two Heads Can Be Better Than One: Knowledge Construction
As A Social Enterprise
Bastard Cities and Spaceship Skies: Misconstructing
"Knowledge"
Making Good Sense
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
We Can't Have It All: A Simple Model of the Human Memory System
Adopting Some Computer Lingo: Storage, Encoding, and Retrieval
Very Short, Short, and Longer: Three (Possibly Distinct)
Components of Memory
Just for a Moment: Sensory Memory
Keeping Things a Bit Longer: The Importance of Attention
Big, Bold, Bouncy, and Bizarre: Physical Factors That Capture Our
Attention
Personal Significance and Passion: Psychological Factors That Sustain Our
Attention
A Bottleneck in the System: Attention's Limited Capacity
Where the Action Is: Working (Short-Term) Memory
The Head of the Head: the Central Executive
Another (or Maybe the Same) Bottleneck: the Limited Capacity of Working
Memory
Extending the Life of "Short-Term": Maintenance Rehearsal
Keeping Things Even Longer: Connecting the New With the Old 67
Long But Not Necessarily Forever: Long-Term Memory
That Reminds Me : the Interconnectedness of Long-Term Memory
A Rose Is a Rose Is a Rose: How Information Is Encoded in Long-Term
Memory
You Don't Know Everything You Know: Explicit Versus Implicit Knowledge
How Long Is "Long"? the Duration of Long-Term Memory
The "Active" Mind: Complicating the Simple Model of Memory
Making the Most of a Limited Capacity
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Making Long-Term Truly Long-Term: Long-Term Memory Storage
Processes
The Least Strategic Strategy: Rehearsal
Increasing the Odds That You Keep What You Get: Effective
Strategies
Intentional Sense Making: Meaningful Learning
Tying Things Together: Organization
Going Well Beyond: Elaboration
A Picture Might Be Worth a Thousand Words: Visual Imagery
Lighting Mental Fires: Hot Cognition
The Rich Get Richer: Long-Term Memory's Snowball Effect
Making Sense of Nonsense: Mnemonics
The Principal Is My Pal: Verbal Mediation
Love Is a Suit of Armor: the Keyword Method
When the "Mites" Go Up, the "Tites" Come Down: Superimposed Meaningful
Structures
Saving Things for the Long Term
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Not All Roads Lead To Rome: Remembering and Forgetting
Traveling Down Memory Lane: How We Find Things In Long-Term
Memory
Paving Memory Lane: the Value of Automaticity
Finding Old Trails Through the Woods: the Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
Posting Road Signs: the Importance of Retrieval Cues
Revisiting Hot Spots: Flashbulb Memories
Rebuilding Old Memories: Why We Sometimes Misremember
The Power of Suggestion: Effects of After-the-Fact Information
Remembering What But Forgetting When or Where: Problems in Source
Monitoring
Re-Remembering: Effects of Prior Recollections
"Remembering" What Never Happened: False Memories
Huge Attic, Small Flashlight: Why We Sometimes Forget
Neglecting to Firm Things Up: Consolidation Problems
Misdirecting the Flashlight: Retrieval Problems
Mixing and Matching: Interference Problems
Not Going Where It's Too Hot: Repression of Painful Memories
Using It or Losing It: Possible Decay of Memories
Forgetting the Long-Ago Past: Infantile Amnesia
Forgetting to Remember the Future: the Challenge of Prospective Memory
Becoming a Good Rememberer
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Thinking About Thinking: Metacognition
Being a Good Self-Executive: What Metacognition Involves
Reading for Learning: Being a Metacognitively Astute Reader
Ultimately It's What We Do Inside That Counts: Overt Versus Covert
Strategies
What Does It Mean To "Know" Something? Epistemic Beliefs
"The Truth Is Out There Somewhere": Beliefs about the Certainty of
Knowledge
"Math Is Numbers, History Is Dates": Beliefs about the Simplicity of
Knowledge
"If I Hear It Enough Times, It's Bound to Sink In": Beliefs about the Origins of
Knowledge
"Father Knows Best": Criteria for Determining Truth
"Either You Have It or You Don't": Beliefs about the Speed of Learning
"I Don't Have Any Math Genes": Beliefs about the Nature of Learning Ability
But I Studied So Hard! the Illusion of Knowing
Becoming a More Metacognitive Learner
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Common Sense Isn't Always Sensible: Reasoning and Critical Thinking .
Avoiding the Garden Path: Critically Analyzing Arguments
One Thing Leads To Another: Logical Reasoning
If This, Then That: Deductive Reasoning
Generalizing from Few to Many: Inductive Reasoning
Doing the Math: Quantitative Reasoning
What Are the Odds? Reasoning about Probabilities
Digging Up the Facts: Scientific Reasoning
Looking for What You Don't Want to Find: Seeking Contradictory Evidence
When Two Wrongs Can Make a Right: Eliminating Alternative Hypotheses
Taking One Things at a Time: Separating and Controlling Variables
Did the Butler Really Do It, or Was He Just in the Wrong Place at the Wrong
Time? Distinguishing Between Causation and Correlation
Jumping To Conclusions Or Jumping Off a Cliff? Common
Pitfalls In Reasoning
"Keep It Simple, Stupid" (KISS): Taking Mental Shortcuts
"I Knew This Would Happen!": Confirming Expectations
"I Have It on the Best of Authority": Mistaking Dogma for Fact
"I Know It in My Heart": Letting Emotion Overrule Logic and Objectivity
"It's Either Black or White": Thinking Dichotomously
It's Attitude as Much as Aptitude: Essential Qualities Of
Critical Thinkers
Inquiring Minds Want to Know: Dispositions
Inquiring Minds Also Evaluate the Evidence: Epistemic Beliefs (Again)
Making Rational Good Sense
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Applying the Old To the New: Transfer, Problem Solving, and Creativity
Putting Knowledge To Good Use: The Process of Transfer
Usually It Helps, But Sometimes It Can Hurt: Positive Versus Negative
Transfer
How Far Can You Go? Specific Versus General Transfer
"Why Didn't I Think of That?": the Importance of Retrieval for Transfer
Applying Yourself as Well as Your Knowledge: Expanding the Notion of
Transfer
Putting the Pieces Together: Problem Solving
So What's the Problem Here? Well-Defined Versus Ill-Defined Problems
Working Memory Provides Only a Small Workbench: Recalling Our Limited
Capacity
"As I Was Going to Saint Ives": How Encoding Affects Problem Solving
Stuck in a Rut: Mental Sets in Problem Solving
There Isn't Always a Prescription for What Ails You: Problem-Solving
Strategies
Thinking Outside the Box: Creativity
Great Minds Don't Always Think Alike: Convergent Versus Divergent Thinking
Origins of Originality: Characteristics of Creative Thinkers
Maybe You Should Sleep on It: Factors That Facilitate Creative Thinking
Putting Knowledge To Work
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Becoming A More Intelligent Thinker And learner: Acquiring
Productive Perspectives and Habits
You're Probably Smarter Than You Think You Are: The Nature of Intelligence
It's Not All in the Numbers: What IQ Tests Do and Don't Tell Us
Are We Born Smart or Made Smart? Nature Versus Nurture in Intelligence
Sharing the Mental Load: Distributed Intelligence
Giving Credit Where Credit May Or May Not Be Due: Attributions
Where, How Long, and Who's in Control? Three Dimensions of Attributions
Taking Credit, Placing Blame: Our Self-Protective Bias
How We See the Past Affects How We See the Future: Effects of
Attributions
Returning to Intelligence: A Permanent Entity or an Incremental Process?
Master of the Universe or Victim of Circumstance: Attributional Style
Putting Yourself In the Driver's Seat: Self-Regulation
Talking to Yourself Doesn't Mean You're Crazy: Self-Regulated Behavior
Mind Control at Its Best: Self-Regulated Learning
Positive Spins and Silver Linings: Self-Regulation of Emotions
Putting Work Before Pleasure and Sometimes Making Work Pleasure
Self-Regulation of Motivation
Taking Charge of Learning and Life
Thinking Smart
Helping Others Think Smart
Teaching Tips
Enhancing Minds and Memories: The Big Picture
Suggested Readings
Reader's Guide: Questions for Discussion
Chapter Endnotes
References

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