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Introduction | |

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Bags | |

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The Bag | |

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A Bag's Behaviors | |

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Specifying a Bag | |

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An Interface | |

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Using the ADT Bag | |

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Using an ADT Is Like Using a Vending Machine | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface Set | |

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Bag Implementations That Use Arrays | |

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Using a Fixed-Size Array to Implement the ADT Bag | |

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An Analogy | |

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A Group of Core Methods | |

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Implementing the Core Methods | |

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Testing the Core Methods | |

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Implementing More Methods | |

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Methods That Remove Entries | |

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Using Array Resizing to Implement the ADT Bag | |

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Resizing an Array | |

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A New Implementation of a Bag | |

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The Pros and Cons of Using an Array to Implement the ADT Bag | |

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A Bag Implementation That Links Data | |

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Linked Data | |

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Forming a Chain by Adding to Its Beginning | |

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A Linked Implementation of the ADT Bag | |

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The Private Class Node | |

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An Outline of the Class Linked Bag | |

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Defining Some Core Methods | |

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Testing the Core Methods | |

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The Method getFrequencyOf | |

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The Method contains | |

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Removing an Item from a Linked Chain | |

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The Methods remove and clear | |

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A Class Node That Has Set and Get Methods | |

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The Pros and Cons of Using a Chain to Implement the ADT Bag | |

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The Efficiency of Algorithms | |

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Motivation | |

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Measuring an Algorithm's Efficiency | |

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Counting Basic Operations | |

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Best, Worst, and Average Cases | |

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Big Oh Notation | |

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The Complexities of Program Constructs | |

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Picturing Efficiency | |

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The Efficiency of Implementations of the ADT Bag | |

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An Array-Based Implementation | |

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A Linked Implementation | |

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Comparing the Implementations | |

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Stacks | |

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Specifications of the ADT Stack | |

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Using a Stack to Process Algebraic Expressions | |

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A Problem Solved: Checking for Balanced Delimiters in an Infix Algebraic Expression | |

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A Problem Solved: Transforming an Infix Expression to a Postfix Expression | |

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A Problem Solved: Evaluating Postfix Expressions | |

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A Problem Solved: Evaluating Infix Expressions | |

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The Program Stack | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Stack | |

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Stack Implementations | |

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A Linked Implementation | |

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An Array-Based Implementation | |

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A Vector-Based Implementation | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Vector | |

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Using a Vector to Implement the ADT Stack | |

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Recursion | |

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What Is Recursion? | |

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Tracing a Recursive Method | |

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Recursive Methods That Return a Value | |

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Recursively Processing an Array | |

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Recursively Processing a Linked Chain | |

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The Time Efficiency of Recursive Methods | |

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The Time Efficiency of countDown | |

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The Time Efficiency of Computing xn | |

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A Simple Solution to a Difficult Problem | |

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A Poor Solution to a Simple Problem | |

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Tail Recursion | |

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Indirect Recursion | |

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Using a Stack Instead of Recursion | |

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An Introduction to Sorting | |

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Organizing Java Methods That Sort an Array | |

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Selection Sort | |

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Iterative Selection Sort | |

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Recursive Selection Sort | |

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The Efficiency of Selection Sort | |

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Insertion Sort | |

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Iterative Insertion Sort | |

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Recursive Insertion Sort | |

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The Efficiency of Insertion Sort | |

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Insertion Sort of a Chain of Linked Nodes | |

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Shell Sort | |

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The Java Code | |

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The Efficiency of Shell Sort | |

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Comparing the Algorithms | |

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Faster Sorting Methods | |

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Merge Sort | |

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Merging Arrays | |

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Recursive Merge Sort | |

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The Efficiency of Merge Sort | |

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Iterative Merge Sort | |

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Merge Sort in the Java Class Library | |

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Quick Sort | |

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The Efficiency of Quick Sort | |

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Creating the Partition | |

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Java Code for Quick Sort | |

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Quick Sort in the Java Class Library | |

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Radix Sort | |

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Pseudocode for Radix Sort | |

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The Efficiency of Radix Sort | |

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Comparing the Algorithms | |

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Queues, Deques, and Priority Queues | |

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The ADT Queue | |

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A Problem Solved: Simulating a Waiting Line | |

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A Problem Solved: Computing the Capital Gain in a Sale of Stock | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface Queue | |

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The ADT Deque | |

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A Problem Solved: Computing the Capital Gain in a Sale of Stock | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface Deque | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Array Deque | |

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The ADT Priority Queue | |

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A Problem Solved: Tracking Your Assignments | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Priority Queue | |

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Queue, Deque, and Priority Queue Implementations | |

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A Linked Implementation of a Queue | |

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An Array-Based Implementation of a Queue | |

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A Circular Array | |

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A Circular Array with One Unused Location | |

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A Vector-Based Implementation of a Queue | |

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Circular Linked Implementations of a Queue | |

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A Two-Part Circular Linked Chain | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Abstract Queue | |

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A Doubly Linked Implementation of a Deque | |

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Possible Implementations of a Priority Queue | |

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Lists | |

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Specifications for the ADT List | |

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Using the ADT List | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface List | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Array List | |

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List Implementations That Use Arrays | |

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Using an Array to Implement the ADT List | |

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An Analogy | |

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The Java Implementation | |

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The Efficiency of Using an Array to Implement the ADT List | |

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Using a Vector to Implement the ADT List | |

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A List Implementation That Links Data | |

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Operations on a Chain of Linked Nodes | |

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Adding a Node at Various Positions | |

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Removing a Node from Various Positions | |

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The Private Method get Node At | |

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Beginning the Implementation | |

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The Data Fields and Constructor | |

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Adding to the End of the List | |

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Adding at a Given Position Within the List | |

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The Methods is Empty and to Array | |

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Testing the Core Methods | |

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Continuing the Implementation | |

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A Refined Implementation | |

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The Tail Reference | |

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The Efficiency of Using a Chain to Implement the ADT List | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Linked List | |

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Iterators | |

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What Is an Iterator? | |

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The Interface Iterator | |

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Using the Interface Iterator | |

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A Separate Class Iterator | |

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An Inner Class Iterator | |

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A Linked Implementation | |

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An Array-Based Implementation | |

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Why Are Iterator Methods in Their Own Class? | |

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The Interface List Iterator | |

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Using the Interface List Iterator | |

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An Array-Based Implementation of the Interface List Iterator | |

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The Inner Class | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface Iterable | |

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Iterable and for-each loops | |

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The Interface List Revisited | |

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Sorted Lists | |

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Specifications for the ADT Sorted List | |

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Using the ADT Sorted List | |

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A Linked Implementation | |

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The Method add | |

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The Efficiency of the Linked Implementation | |

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An Implementation That Uses the ADT List | |

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Efficiency Issues | |

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Inheritance and Lists | |

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Using Inheritance to Implement a Sorted List | |

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Designing a Base Class | |

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Creating an Abstract Base Class | |

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An Efficient Implementation of a Sorted List | |

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The Method add | |

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Searching | |

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The Problem | |

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Searching an Unsorted Array | |

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An Iterative Sequential Search of an Unsorted Array | |

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A Recursive Sequential Search of an Unsorted Array | |

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The Efficiency of a Sequential Search of an Array | |

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Searching a Sorted Array | |

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A Sequential Search of a Sorted Array | |

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A Binary Search of a Sorted Array | |

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Java Class Library: The Method binary Search | |

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The Efficiency of a Binary Search of an Array | |

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Searching an Unsorted Chain | |

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An Iterative Sequential Search of an Unsorted Chain | |

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A Recursive Sequential Search of an Unsorted Chain | |

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The Efficiency of a Sequential Search of a Chain | |

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Searching a Sorted Chain | |

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A Sequential Search of a Sorted Chain | |

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A Binary Search of a Sorted Chain | |

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Choosing a Search Method | |

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Dictionaries | |

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Specifications for the ADT Dictionary | |

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A Java Interface | |

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Iterators | |

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Using the ADT Dictionary | |

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A Problem Solved: A Directory of Telephone Numbers | |

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A Problem Solved: The Frequency of Words | |

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A Problem Solved: A Concordance of Words | |

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Java Class Library: The Interface Map | |

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Dictionary Implementations | |

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Array-Based Implementations | |

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An Unsorted Array-Based Dictionary | |

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A Sorted Array-Based Dictionary | |

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Vector-Based Implementations | |

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Linked Implementations | |

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An Unsorted Linked Dictionary | |

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A Sorted Linked Dictionary | |

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Introducing Hashing | |

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What Is Hashing? | |

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Hash Functions | |

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Computing Hash Codes | |

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Compressing a Hash Code into an Index for the Hash Table | |

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Resolving Collisions | |

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Open Addressing with Linear Probing | |

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Open Addressing with Quadratic Probing | |

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Open Addressing with Double Hashing | |

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A Potential Problem with Open Addressing | |

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Separate Chaining | |

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Hashing as a Dictionary Implementation | |

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The Efficiency of Hashing | |

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The Load Factor | |

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The Cost of Open Addressing | |

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The Cost of Separate Chaining | |

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Rehashing | |

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Comparing Schemes for Collision Resolution | |

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A Dictionary Implementation That Uses Hashing | |

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Entries in the Hash Table | |

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Data Fields and Constructors | |

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The Methods getValue, remove, and add | |

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Iterators | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Hash Map | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Hash Set | |

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Trees | |

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Tree Concepts | |

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Hierarchical Organizations | |

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Tree Terminology | |

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Traversals of a Tree | |

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Traversals of a Binary Tree | |

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Traversals of a General Tree | |

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Java Interfaces for Trees | |

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Interfaces for All Trees | |

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An Interface for Binary Trees | |

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Examples of Binary Trees | |

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Expression Trees | |

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Decision Trees | |

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Binary Search Trees | |

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Heaps | |

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Examples of General Trees | |

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Parse Trees | |

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Game Trees | |

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Tree Implementations | |

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The Nodes in a Binary Tree | |

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An Interface for a Node | |

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An Implementation of BinaryNode | |

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An Implementation of the ADT Binary Tree | |

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Creating a Basic Binary Tree | |

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The Method privateSetTree | |

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Accessor and Mutator Methods | |

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Computing the Height and Counting Nodes | |

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Traversals | |

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An Implementation of an Expression Tree | |

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General Trees | |

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A Node for a General Tree | |

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Using a Binary Tree to Represent a General Tree | |

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A Binary Search Tree Implementation | |

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Getting Started | |

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An Interface for the Binary Search Tree | |

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Duplicate Entries | |

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Beginning the Class Definition | |

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Searching and Retrieving | |

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Traversing | |

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Adding an Entry | |

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A Recursive Implementation | |

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An Iterative Implementation | |

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Removing an Entry | |

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Removing an Entry Whose Node Is a Leaf | |

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Removing an Entry Whose Node Has One Child | |

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Removing an Entry Whose Node Has Two Children | |

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Removing an Entry in the Root | |

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A Recursive Implementation | |

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An Iterative Implementation | |

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The Efficiency of Operations | |

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The Importance of Balance | |

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The Order in Which Nodes Are Added | |

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An Implementation of the ADT Dictionary | |

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A Heap Implementation | |

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Reprise: The ADT Heap | |

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Using an Array to Represent a Heap | |

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Adding an Entry | |

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Removing the Root | |

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Creating a Heap | |

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Heap Sort | |

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Balanced Search Trees | |

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AVL Trees | |

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Single Rotations | |

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Double Rotations | |

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Implementation Details | |

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2-3 Trees | |

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Searching a 2-3 Tree | |

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Adding Entries to a 2-3 Tree | |

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Splitting Nodes During Addition | |

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2-4 Trees | |

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Adding Entries to a 2-4 Tree | |

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Comparing AVL, 2-3, and 2-4 Trees | |

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Red-Black Trees | |

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Properties of a Red-Black Tree | |

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Adding Entries to a Red-Black Tree | |

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Java Class Library: The Class Tree Map | |

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B-Trees | |

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Graphs | |

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Some Examples and Terminology | |

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Road Maps | |

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Airline Routes | |

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Mazes | |

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Course Prerequisites | |

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Trees | |

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Traversals | |

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Breadth-First Traversal | |

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Depth-First Traversal | |

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Topological Order | |

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Paths | |

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Finding a Path | |

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The Shortest Path in an Unweighted Graph | |

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The Shortest Path in a Weighted Graph | |

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Java Interfaces for the ADT Graph | |

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Graph Implementations | |

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An Overview of Two Implementations | |

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The Adjacency Matrix | |

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The Adjacency List | |

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Vertices and Edges | |

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Specifying the Class Vertex | |

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The Inner Class Edge | |

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Implementing the Class Vertex | |

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An Implementation of the ADT Graph | |

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Basic Operations | |

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Graph Algorithms | |

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Mutable, Immutable, and Cloneable Objects Online | |

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Mutable and Immutable Objects 30-2 | |

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Creating a Read-Only Class 30-4 | |

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Companion Classes 30-6 | |

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Cloneable Objects 30-8 | |

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Cloning an Array 30-14 | |

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Cloning a Chain 30-16 | |

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A Sorted List of Clones 30-19 | |

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Appendices | |

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Java Essentials A-1 | |

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Introduction A-2 | |

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Applications and Applets A-2 | |

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Objects and Classes A-3 | |

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A First Java Application Program A-3 | |

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Java Basics A-5 | |

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Identifiers A-5 | |

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Reserved Words A-6 | |

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Variables A-6 | |

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Primitive Types A-7 | |

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Constants A-7 | |

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Assignment Statements A-8 | |

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Assignment Compatibilities A-9 | |

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Type Casting A-9 | |

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Arithmetic Operators and Expressions A-10 | |

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Parentheses and Precedence Rules A-11 | |

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Increment and Decrement Operators A-12 | |

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Special Assignment Operators A-13 | |

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Named Constants A-14 | |

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The Class Math A-15 | |

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Simple Input and Output Using the Keyboard and Screen A-15 | |

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Screen Output A-15 | |

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Keyboard Input Using the Class Scanner A-17 | |

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The if-else Statement A-19 | |

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Boolean Expressions A-20 | |

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Nested Statements A-23 | |

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Multiway if-else Statements A-24 | |

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The Conditional Operator (Optional) A-25 | |

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The switch Statement A-26 | |

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Enumerations A-28 | |

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Scope A-30 | |

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Loops A-30 | |

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The while Statement A-31 | |

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The for Statement A-32 | |

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The do-while Statement A-34 | |

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Additional Loop Information A-35 | |

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The Class String A-36 | |

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Characters Within Strings A-36 | |

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Concatenation of Strings A-37 | |

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String Methods A-38 | |

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The Class StringBuilder A-40 | |

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Using Scanner to Extract Pieces of a String A-42 | |

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Arrays A-44 | |

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Array Parameters and Returned Values A-46 | |

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Initializing Arrays A-47 | |

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Array Index Out of Bounds A-47 | |

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Use of = and == with Arrays A-47 | |

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Arrays and the For-Each Loop A-48 | |

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Multidimensional Arrays A-49 | |

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Wrapper Classes A-51 | |

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Java Classes B-1 | |

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Objects and Classes B-1 | |

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Using the Methods in a Java Class B-3 | |

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References and Aliases B-4 | |

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Defining a Java Class B-5 | |

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Method Definitions B-7 | |

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Arguments and Parameters B-9 | |

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Passing Arguments B-9 | |

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A Definition of the Class Name B-13 | |

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Constructors B-15 | |

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The Method toString B-17 | |

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Methods That Call Other Methods B-17 | |

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Methods That Return an Instance of Their Class B-19 | |

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Static Fields and Methods B-19 | |

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Overloading Methods B-21 | |

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Enumeration as a Class B-22 | |

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Packages B-25 | |

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The Java Class Library B-25 | |

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Generic Data Types B-26 | |

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Creating Classes from Other Classes C-1 | |

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Composition C-2 | |

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Adapters C-4 | |

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Inheritance C-5 | |

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Invoking Constructors from Within Constructors C-9 | |

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Private Fields and Methods of the Superclass C-10 | |

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Protected Access C-11 | |

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Overriding and Overloading Methods C-11 | |

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Multiple Inheritance C-16 | |

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Type Compatibility and Superclasses C-16 | |

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The Class Object C-18 | |

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Abstract Classes and Methods C-19 | |

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Polymorphism C-21 | |

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Designing Classes D-1 | |

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Encapsulation D-2 | |

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Specifying Methods D-4 | |

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Comments D-4 | |

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Preconditions and Postconditions D-5 | |

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Assertions D-6 | |

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Java Interfaces D-7 | |

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Writing an Interface D-8 | |

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Implementing an Interface D-10 | |

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An Interface as a Data Type D-11 | |

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Generic Types Within an Interface D-12 | |

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Extending an Interface D-14 | |

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Interfaces Versus Abstract Classes D-15 | |

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Named Constants Within an Interface D-17 | |

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Choosing Classes D-18 | |

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Identifying Classes D-20 | |

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CRC Cards D-20 | |

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The Unified Modeling Language D-21 | |

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Reusing Classes D-23 | |

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Handling Exceptions E-1 | |

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The Basics E-2 | |

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Handling an Exception E-4 | |

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Postpone Handling: The throws Clause E-4 | |

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Handle It Now: The try-catch Blocks E-5 | |

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Multiple catch Blocks E-6 | |

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Throwing an Exception E-8 | |

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Programmer-Defined Exception Classes E-9 | |

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Inheritance and Exceptions E-14 | |

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The finally Block E-15 | |

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File Input and Output F-1 | |

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Preliminaries F-2 | |

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Why Files? F-2 | |

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Streams F-2 | |

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The Kinds of Files F-3 | |

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File Names F-3 | |

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Text Files F-3 | |

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Creating a Text File F-3 | |

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Reading a Text File F-8 | |

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Changing Existing Data in a Text File F-12 | |

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Defining a Method to Open a Stream F-13 | |

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Binary Files F-13 | |

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Creating a Binary File of Primitive Data F-14 | |

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Reading a Binary File of Primitive Data F-18 | |

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Strings in a Binary File F-20 | |

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Object Serialization F-23 | |

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Documentation and Programming Style G-1 | |

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Naming Variables and Classes G-1 | |

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Indenting G-2 | |

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Comments G-2 | |

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Single-Line Comments G-3 | |

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Comment Blocks G-3 | |

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When to Write Comments G-3 | |

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Java Documentation Comments G-3 | |

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Running javadoc G-5 | |

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Glossary Online | |

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Index I-1 | |