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Preface to the Instructor | |

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Introduction to the Student | |

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Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers Using Tables and Graphs | |

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The Two Branches of Statistical Methods | |

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Some Basic Concepts | |

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Important Trivia for Poetic Statistics Students | |

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Frequency Tables | |

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Histograms | |

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Math Anxiety, Statistics Anxiety, and You: A Message for Those of You Who Are Truly Worried About This Course | |

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Shapes of Frequency Distributions | |

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Controversy: Misleading Graphs | |

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Frequency Tables and Histograms in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Note | |

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Central Tendency and Variability | |

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Central Tendency | |

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Variability | |

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The Sheer Joy (Yes, Joy) of Statistical Analysis | |

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Controversy: The Tyranny of the Mean | |

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Gender, Ethnicity, and Math Performance | |

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Central Tendency and Variability in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Some Key Ingredients for Inferential Statistics: Z Scores, the Normal Curve, Sample versus Population, and Probability | |

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Z Scores | |

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The Normal Curve | |

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de Moivre, the Eccentric Stranger Who Invented the Normal Curve | |

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Sample and Population | |

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Surveys, Polls, and 1948's Costly "Free Sample" | |

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Probability | |

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Pascal Begins Probability Theory at the Gambling Table, Then Learns to Bet on God | |

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Controversies: Is the Normal Curve Really So Normal? and Using Nonrandom Samples | |

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Z Scores, Normal Curves, Samples and Populations, and Probabilities in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topics: Probability Rules and Conditional Probabilities | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | |

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A Hypothesis-Testing Example | |

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The Core Logic of Hypothesis Testing | |

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The Hypothesis-Testing Process | |

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One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests | |

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Controversy: Should Significance Tests Be Banned? | |

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Jacob Cohen, the Ultimate New Yorker: Funny, Pushy, Brilliant, and Kind | |

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Hypothesis Tests in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Hypothesis Tests with Means of Samples | |

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The Distribution of Means | |

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Hypothesis Testing with a Distribution of Means: The Z Test | |

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More About Polls: Sampling Errors and Errors in Thinking About Samples | |

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Controversy: Marginal Significance | |

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Hypothesis Tests About Means of Samples (Z Tests) and Standard Errors in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: Estimation, Standard Errors, and Confidence Intervals | |

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Advanced Topic Controversy: Confidence Intervals versus Significance Tests | |

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Advanced Topic: Confidence Intervals in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Making Sense of Statistical Significance: Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Statistical Power | |

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Decision Errors | |

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Effect Size | |

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Effect Sizes for Relaxation and Meditation: A Restful Meta-Analysis | |

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Statistical Power | |

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What Determines the Power of a Study? | |

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The Power of Typical Psychology Experiments | |

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The Role of Power When Planning a Study | |

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The Role of Power When Interpreting the Results of a Study | |

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Controversy: Statistical Significance versus Effect Size | |

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Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Power in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: Figuring Statistical Power | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Chapter Note | |

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Introduction to t Tests: Single Sample and Dependent Means | |

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The t Test for a Single Sample | |

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William S. Gosset, Alias "Student": Not a Mathematician, But a Practical Man | |

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The t Test for Dependent Means | |

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Assumptions of the t Test for a Single Sample and the t Test for Dependent Means | |

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Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Dependent Means | |

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Controversy: Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated-Measures Designs | |

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The Power of Studies Using Difference Scores: How the Lanarkshire Milk Experiment Could Have Been Milked for More | |

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Single Sample t Tests and Dependent Means t Tests in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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The t Test for Independent Means | |

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The Distribution of Differences Between Means | |

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Hypothesis Testing with a t Test for Independent Means | |

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Assumptions of the t Test for Independent Means | |

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Monte Carlo Methods: When Mathematics Becomes Just an Experiment, and Statistics Depend on a Game of Chance | |

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Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Independent Means | |

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Review and Comparison of the Three Kinds of t Tests | |

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Controversy: The Problem of Too Many t Tests | |

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The t Test for Independent Means in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: Power for the t Test for Independent Means When Sample Sizes Are Not Equal | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Introduction to the Analysis of Variance | |

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Basic Logic of the Analysis of Variance | |

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Sir Ronald Fisher, Caustic Genius of Statistics | |

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Carrying Out an Analysis of Variance | |

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Hypothesis Testing with the Analysis of Variance | |

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Assumptions in the Analysis of Variance | |

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Planned Contrasts | |

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Post Hoc Comparisons | |

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Effect Size and Power for the Analysis of Variance | |

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Controversy: Omnibus Tests versus Planned Contrasts | |

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Analyses of Variance in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: The Structural Model in the Analysis of Variance | |

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Principles of the Structural Model | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Factorial Analysis of Variance | |

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Basic Logic of Factorial Designs and Interaction Effects | |

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Recognizing and Interpreting Interaction Effects | |

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Basic Logic of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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Personality and Situational Influences on Behavior: An Interaction Effect | |

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Assumptions in the Factorial Analysis of Variance | |

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Extensions and Special Cases of the Analysis of Variance | |

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Controversy: Dichotomizing Numeric Variables | |

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Factorial Analysis of Variance in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: Figuring a Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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Advanced Topic: Power and Effect Size in the Factorial Analysis of Variance | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Correlation | |

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Graphing Correlations: The Scatter Diagram | |

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Patterns of Correlation | |

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The Correlation Coefficient | |

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Galton: Gentleman Genius | |

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Significance of a Correlation Coefficient | |

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Correlation and Causality | |

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Issues in Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Illusory Correlation: When You Know Perfectly Well That If It's Big, It's Fat-and You Are Perfectly Wrong | |

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Effect Size and Power for the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Controversy: What Is a Large Correlation? | |

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Correlation in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Prediction | |

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Predictor (X) and Criterion (Y) Variables | |

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The Linear Prediction Rule | |

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The Regression Line | |

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Finding the Best Linear Prediction Rule | |

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The Least Squared Error Principle | |

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Issues in Prediction | |

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Multiple Regression | |

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Limitations of Prediction | |

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Controversy: Unstandardized and Standardized Regression Coefficients; Comparing Predictors | |

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Clinical versus Statistical Prediction | |

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Prediction in Research Articles | |

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Advanced Topic: Error and Proportionate Reduction in Error | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Chi-Square Tests | |

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Karl Pearson, Inventor of Chi-Square and Center of Controversy | |

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The Chi-Square Statistic and the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | |

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The Chi-Square Test for Independence | |

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Assumptions for Chi-Square Tests | |

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Effect Size and Power for Chi-Square Tests for Independence | |

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Controversy: The Minimum Expected Frequency | |

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Chi-Square Tests in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Strategies When Population Distributions Are Not Normal: Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests | |

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Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures | |

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Data Transformations | |

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Rank-Order Tests | |

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Comparison of Methods | |

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Controversy: Computer-Intensive Methods | |

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Where Do Random Numbers Come From? | |

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Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests in Research Articles | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Example Worked-Out Problems | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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The General Linear Model and Making Sense of Advanced Statistical Procedures in Research Articles | |

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The General Linear Model | |

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Two Women Make a Point About Gender and Statistics | |

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Partial Correlation | |

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Reliability | |

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Multilevel Modeling | |

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Factor Analysis | |

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Causal Modeling | |

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The Golden Age of Statistics: Four Guys Around London | |

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Procedures That Compare Groups | |

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Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) | |

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Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) | |

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Overview of Statistical Techniques | |

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Controversy: Should Statistics Be Controversial? | |

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The Forced Partnership of Fisher and Pearson | |

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How to Read Results Using Unfamiliar Statistical Techniques | |

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Summary | |

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Key Terms | |

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Practice Problems | |

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Using SPSS | |

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Chapter Notes | |

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Tables | |

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Answers to Set I Practice Problems | |

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Glossary | |

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Glossary of Symbols | |

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References | |

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Index | |