Statistics for Psychology

ISBN-10: 0136010571
ISBN-13: 9780136010579
Edition: 5th 2009
List price: $185.00 Buy it from $14.23
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Description: This book brings to life the compelling underlying logic of statistical methods so that readers can not only do the computations, but also truly understand what they are doing and remember what they have learned for years to come.This book covers  More...

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Book details

List price: $185.00
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 3/9/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 744
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.366
Language: English

This book brings to life the compelling underlying logic of statistical methods so that readers can not only do the computations, but also truly understand what they are doing and remember what they have learned for years to come.This book covers the basic introductory statistics and methods including central tendency and variability, inferential statistics (Z scores, the normal curve, sample versus population, and probability), the t test, the analysis of variance, correlation, prediction, and more.For research analysts and reporters in the field of psychology.

Preface to the Instructor
Introduction to the Student
Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers Using Tables and Graphs
The Two Branches of Statistical Methods
Some Basic Concepts
Important Trivia for Poetic Statistics Students
Frequency Tables
Histograms
Math Anxiety, Statistics Anxiety, and You: A Message for Those of You Who Are Truly Worried About This Course
Shapes of Frequency Distributions
Controversy: Misleading Graphs
Frequency Tables and Histograms in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Note
Central Tendency and Variability
Central Tendency
Variability
The Sheer Joy (Yes, Joy) of Statistical Analysis
Controversy: The Tyranny of the Mean
Gender, Ethnicity, and Math Performance
Central Tendency and Variability in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Some Key Ingredients for Inferential Statistics: Z Scores, the Normal Curve, Sample versus Population, and Probability
Z Scores
The Normal Curve
de Moivre, the Eccentric Stranger Who Invented the Normal Curve
Sample and Population
Surveys, Polls, and 1948's Costly "Free Sample"
Probability
Pascal Begins Probability Theory at the Gambling Table, Then Learns to Bet on God
Controversies: Is the Normal Curve Really So Normal? and Using Nonrandom Samples
Z Scores, Normal Curves, Samples and Populations, and Probabilities in Research Articles
Advanced Topics: Probability Rules and Conditional Probabilities
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
A Hypothesis-Testing Example
The Core Logic of Hypothesis Testing
The Hypothesis-Testing Process
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests
Controversy: Should Significance Tests Be Banned?
Jacob Cohen, the Ultimate New Yorker: Funny, Pushy, Brilliant, and Kind
Hypothesis Tests in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Chapter Notes
Hypothesis Tests with Means of Samples
The Distribution of Means
Hypothesis Testing with a Distribution of Means: The Z Test
More About Polls: Sampling Errors and Errors in Thinking About Samples
Controversy: Marginal Significance
Hypothesis Tests About Means of Samples (Z Tests) and Standard Errors in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: Estimation, Standard Errors, and Confidence Intervals
Advanced Topic Controversy: Confidence Intervals versus Significance Tests
Advanced Topic: Confidence Intervals in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Chapter Notes
Making Sense of Statistical Significance: Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Statistical Power
Decision Errors
Effect Size
Effect Sizes for Relaxation and Meditation: A Restful Meta-Analysis
Statistical Power
What Determines the Power of a Study?
The Power of Typical Psychology Experiments
The Role of Power When Planning a Study
The Role of Power When Interpreting the Results of a Study
Controversy: Statistical Significance versus Effect Size
Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Power in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: Figuring Statistical Power
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Chapter Note
Introduction to t Tests: Single Sample and Dependent Means
The t Test for a Single Sample
William S. Gosset, Alias "Student": Not a Mathematician, But a Practical Man
The t Test for Dependent Means
Assumptions of the t Test for a Single Sample and the t Test for Dependent Means
Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Dependent Means
Controversy: Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated-Measures Designs
The Power of Studies Using Difference Scores: How the Lanarkshire Milk Experiment Could Have Been Milked for More
Single Sample t Tests and Dependent Means t Tests in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
The t Test for Independent Means
The Distribution of Differences Between Means
Hypothesis Testing with a t Test for Independent Means
Assumptions of the t Test for Independent Means
Monte Carlo Methods: When Mathematics Becomes Just an Experiment, and Statistics Depend on a Game of Chance
Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Independent Means
Review and Comparison of the Three Kinds of t Tests
Controversy: The Problem of Too Many t Tests
The t Test for Independent Means in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: Power for the t Test for Independent Means When Sample Sizes Are Not Equal
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Introduction to the Analysis of Variance
Basic Logic of the Analysis of Variance
Sir Ronald Fisher, Caustic Genius of Statistics
Carrying Out an Analysis of Variance
Hypothesis Testing with the Analysis of Variance
Assumptions in the Analysis of Variance
Planned Contrasts
Post Hoc Comparisons
Effect Size and Power for the Analysis of Variance
Controversy: Omnibus Tests versus Planned Contrasts
Analyses of Variance in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: The Structural Model in the Analysis of Variance
Principles of the Structural Model
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Factorial Analysis of Variance
Basic Logic of Factorial Designs and Interaction Effects
Recognizing and Interpreting Interaction Effects
Basic Logic of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Personality and Situational Influences on Behavior: An Interaction Effect
Assumptions in the Factorial Analysis of Variance
Extensions and Special Cases of the Analysis of Variance
Controversy: Dichotomizing Numeric Variables
Factorial Analysis of Variance in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: Figuring a Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Advanced Topic: Power and Effect Size in the Factorial Analysis of Variance
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Correlation
Graphing Correlations: The Scatter Diagram
Patterns of Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Galton: Gentleman Genius
Significance of a Correlation Coefficient
Correlation and Causality
Issues in Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient
Illusory Correlation: When You Know Perfectly Well That If It's Big, It's Fat-and You Are Perfectly Wrong
Effect Size and Power for the Correlation Coefficient
Controversy: What Is a Large Correlation?
Correlation in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Prediction
Predictor (X) and Criterion (Y) Variables
The Linear Prediction Rule
The Regression Line
Finding the Best Linear Prediction Rule
The Least Squared Error Principle
Issues in Prediction
Multiple Regression
Limitations of Prediction
Controversy: Unstandardized and Standardized Regression Coefficients; Comparing Predictors
Clinical versus Statistical Prediction
Prediction in Research Articles
Advanced Topic: Error and Proportionate Reduction in Error
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Chi-Square Tests
Karl Pearson, Inventor of Chi-Square and Center of Controversy
The Chi-Square Statistic and the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit
The Chi-Square Test for Independence
Assumptions for Chi-Square Tests
Effect Size and Power for Chi-Square Tests for Independence
Controversy: The Minimum Expected Frequency
Chi-Square Tests in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Strategies When Population Distributions Are Not Normal: Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests
Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures
Data Transformations
Rank-Order Tests
Comparison of Methods
Controversy: Computer-Intensive Methods
Where Do Random Numbers Come From?
Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests in Research Articles
Summary
Key Terms
Example Worked-Out Problems
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
The General Linear Model and Making Sense of Advanced Statistical Procedures in Research Articles
The General Linear Model
Two Women Make a Point About Gender and Statistics
Partial Correlation
Reliability
Multilevel Modeling
Factor Analysis
Causal Modeling
The Golden Age of Statistics: Four Guys Around London
Procedures That Compare Groups
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA)
Overview of Statistical Techniques
Controversy: Should Statistics Be Controversial?
The Forced Partnership of Fisher and Pearson
How to Read Results Using Unfamiliar Statistical Techniques
Summary
Key Terms
Practice Problems
Using SPSS
Chapter Notes
Tables
Answers to Set I Practice Problems
Glossary
Glossary of Symbols
References
Index

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