Foundations of MEMS

ISBN-10: 0132497360
ISBN-13: 9780132497367
Edition: 2nd 2012
Authors: Chang Liu
List price: $194.20
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Description: For courses in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) taken by advanced undergraduate students, beginning graduate students, and professionals. Foundations of MEMS is an entry-level text designed to systematically teach the specifics of MEMS to an  More...

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Book details

List price: $194.20
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 3/4/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 560
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.772
Language: English

For courses in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) taken by advanced undergraduate students, beginning graduate students, and professionals. Foundations of MEMS is an entry-level text designed to systematically teach the specifics of MEMS to an interdisciplinary audience. Liu discusses designs, materials, and fabrication issues related To The MEMS field by employing concepts from both the electrical and mechanical engineering domains and by incorporating evolving microfabrication technology all in a time-efficient and methodical manner. A wealth of examples and problems solidify students' understanding of abstract concepts and provide ample opportunities for practicing critical thinking.

Preface to Second Edition
Preface to First Edition
Note to Instructors
About the Author
Notational Conventions
Introduction
Preview
The History of MEMS Development
From the Beginning to 1990
From 1990 to 2001
2002 to present
Future Trends
The Intrinsic Characteristics of MEMS
Miniaturization
Microelectronics Integration
Parallel Fabrication with Precision
Devices: Sensors and Actuators
Energy Domains and Transducers
Sensors Considerations
Sensor Noise and Design Complexity
Actuators Considerations
Summary
Problems
References
First-Pass Introduction to Microfabrication
Preview
Overview of Microfabrication
Essential Overview of Frequently Used Microfabrication Processes
Photolithography
Thin film deposition
Thermal oxidation of silicon
Wet Etching
Silicon anisotropic etching
Plasma etching and reactive ion etching
Doping
Wafer dicing
Wafer bonding
The Microelectronics Fabrication Process Flow
Silicon-based MEMS Processes
Packaging and Integration
Integration Options
Encapsulation
New Materials and Fabrication Processes
Process Selection and Design
Points of Consideration for Deposition Processes
Points of Consideration for Etching Processes
Ideal Rules for Building a Process Flow
Rules for Building a Robust Process
Summary
Problems
References
Review of Essential Electrical and Mechanical Concepts
Preview
Conductivity of Semiconductors
Semiconductor Materials
Calculation of Charge Carrier Concentration
Conductivity and Resistivity
Crystal Planes and Orientations
Stress and Strain
Internal Force Analysis: Newton's Laws of Motion
Definitions of Stress and Strain
General Scalar Relation between Tensile Stress and Strain
Mechanical Properties of Silicon and Related Thin Films
General Stress Strain Relations
Flexural Beam Bending Analysis under Simple Loading Conditions
Types of Beams
Longitudinal Strain under Pure Bending
Deflection of Beams
Finding the Spring Constants
Torsional Deflections
Intrinsic Stress
Dynamic System, Resonant Frequency, and Quality Factor
Dynamic System and Governing Equation
Response under Sinusoidal Resonant Input
Damping and Quality Factor
Resonant Frequency and Bandwidth
Active Tuning of Spring Constant and Resonant Frequency
A List of Suggested Courses and Books
Summary
Problems
References
Electrostatic Sensing and Actuation
Preview
Introduction to Electrostatic Sensors and Actuators
Parallel Plate Capacitor
Capacitance of Parallel Plates
Equilibrium Position of Electrostatic Actuator under Bias
Pull-in Effect of Parallel-Plate Actuators
Applications of Parallel-Plate Capacitors
Inertia Sensor
Pressure Sensor
Flow Sensor
Tactile sensor
Parallel-plate actuators
Interdigitated Finger Capacitors
Applications of Comb-Drive Devices
Inertia Sensors
Actuators
Summary
Problems
References
Thermal Sensing and Actuation
Preview
Introduction
Thermal Sensors
Thermal Actuators
Fundamentals of Thermal Transfer
Sensors and Actuators Based on Thermal Expansion
Thermal Bimorph Principle
Thermal Actuators with a Single Material
Thermal Couples
Thermal Resistors
Applications
Inertia Sensors
Flow Sensors
Infrared Sensors
Other Sensors
Summary
Problems
References
Piezoresistive Sensors
Preview
Origin and Expression of Piezoresistivity
Piezoresistive Sensor Materials
Metal Strain Gauges
Single Crystal Silicon
Polycrystalline Silicon
Stress Analysis of Mechanical Elements
Stress in Flexural Cantilevers
Stress and Deformation in Membrane
Applications of Piezoresistive Sensors
Inertial Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Tactile sensor
Flow sensor
Summary
Problems
References
Piezoelectric Sensing and Actuation
Preview
Introduction
Background
Mathematical description of piezoelectric effects
Cantilever piezoelectric actuator model
Properties of Piezoelectric Materials
Quartz
PZT
PVDF
ZnO
Other Materials
Applications
Inertia Sensors
Acoustic Sensors
Tactile Sensors
Flow Sensors
Surface Elastic Waves
Summary
Problems
References
Magnetic Actuation
Preview
Essential Concepts and Principles
Magnetization and Nomenclatures
Selected Principles of Micro Magnetic Actuators
Fabrication of Micro Magnetic Components
Deposition of Magnetic Materials
Design and Fabrication of Magnetic Coil
Case Studies of MEMS Magnetic Actuators
Summary
Problems
References
Summary of Sensing and Actuation Methods
Preview
Comparison of Major Sensing and Actuation Methods
Other Sensing and Actuation Methods
Tunneling Sensing
Optical Sensing
Field Effect Transistors
Radio Frequency Resonance Sensing
Summary
Problems
References
Bulk Micromachining and Silicon Anisotropic Etching
Preview
Introduction
Anisotropic Wet Etching
Introduction
Rules of Anisotropic Etching���Simplest Case
Rules of Anisotropic Etching���Complex Structures
Forming Protrusions
Interaction of Etching Profiles from Isolated Patterns
Summary of design methodology
Chemicals for Wet Anisotropic Etching
Dry Etching and Deep Reactive Ion Etching
Isotropic Wet Etching
Gas Phase Etchants
Native Oxide
Special Wafers and Techniques
Summary
Problems
References
Surface Micromachining
Preview
Basic Surface Micromachining Processes
Sacrificial Etching Process
Micro Motor Fabrication Process���A First Pass
Micro Motor Fabrication Process���A Second Pass
Micro Motor Fabrication Process���Third Pass
Structural and Sacrificial Materials
Material Selection Criteria for a Two-layer Process
Thin Films by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Other Surface Micromachining Materials and Processes
Acceleration of Sacrificial Etch
Stiction and Anti-stiction Methods
Summary
Problems
References
Process Synthesis: Putting It all Together
Preview
Process for Suspension Beams
Process for Membranes
Process for Cantilevers
SPM Technologies Case Motivation
General Fabrication Methods for Tips
Cantilevers with Integrated Tips
Cantilevers with Integrated Sensors
SPM Probes with Actuators
Practical Factors Affecting Yield of MEMS
Summary
Problems
References
Polymer MEMS
Preview
Introduction
Polymers in MEMS
Polyimide
SU-8
Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP)
PDMS
PMMA
Parylene
Fluorocarbon
Other Polymers
Representative Applications
Acceleration Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Flow sensors
Tactile Sensors
Summary
Problems
Reference
Micro Fluidics Applications
Preview
Motivation for Microfluidics
Essential Biology Concepts
Basic Fluid Mechanics Concepts
The Reynolds Number and Viscosity
Methods for Fluid Movement in Channels
Pressure Driven Flow
Electrokinetic Flow
Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis
Design and Fabrication of Selective Components
Channels
Valves
Summary
Problems
References
Case Studies of Selected MEMS Products
Preview
Case Studies: Blood Pressure (BP) Sensor
Background and History
Device Design Considerations
Commercial Case: NovaSensor BP Sensor
Case Studies: Microphone
Background and History
Design Considerations
Commercial Case: Knowles Microphone
Case Studies: Acceleration Sensors
Background and History
Design Considerations
Commercial Case: Analog Devices and MEMSIC
Case Studies: Gyros
Background and History
The Coriolis Force
MEMS Gyro Design
Single Axis Gyro Dynamics
Commercial Case: InvenSense Gyro
Summary of Top Concerns for MEMS Product Development
Performance and Accuracy
Repeatability and Reliability
Managing the Cost of MEMS Products
Market Uncertainties, Investment, and Competition
Summary
Problems
References
Characteristics of selected MEMS material
Frequently Used Formula for Beams, Cantilevers, and Plates
Basic Tools for Dealing with a Mechanical Second-order Dynamic System
Most Commonly Encountered Materials
Most Commonly Encountered Material Removal Process Steps
A List of General Compatibility between General Materials and Processes
Comparison of Commercial Inertial Sensors
Answers to selected problems
Index

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