Science K-8 An Integrated Approach

ISBN-10: 0131992104

ISBN-13: 9780131992108

Edition: 11th 2008

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Description: nbsp;Packed with the science content future teachers must know, and based on the premise that integrated learning by inquiry is the cornerstone of effective science teaching, thenbsp;eleventh edition of this classic again focuses on the four developmental components of both teaching and learning-thewhy, what, how,andhow wellof teaching. Unique to this text are complete content outlines covering the big ideas of life, earth, and phyisical science. Teachers can use these outlines and sequence concepts to build science units with an assurance they will be complete.nbsp;nbsp;Content correlates with NSES standards, while being ideally balanced between the attention span of kindergartners and the genuine interest of eighth graders, addressing the full range of learners in between. Includes thorough coverage of the relationship among curriculum standards, assessment, and high-stakes achievement testing. Thorough, current science content fills in any gaps in students fundamental science knowledge and readies them for current science curriculum standards. Includes up-to-date lists of science-oriented websites.For future elementary and/or middle school teachers. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;

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Book details

List price: $205.20
Edition: 11th
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/10/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

Teaching Science K-8
Teaching Science in Grades K-8: Then and Now
Reasons for Science in the K-8 Curriculum
In the Beginning
Pestalozzi and Object Teaching
The Nature Study Movement
Landmarks in the Development of the K-8 Science Curriculum
John Dewey
School Restructuring
Gerald S. Craig
Yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Education
The National Curriculum Development Projects of the 1960s
Back to the Basics
Decade of the Reports
The Final Decade of the 20th Century
Key Trends and Practices Today
Focus on Science and Technology Literacy
Focus on Curriculum Standards
Preparing Students for High-Stakes Testing: When All Students Are Expected to Do Well on a Mandated Assessment, Then All Should Be Given Equal Opportunity to Prepare for It
Problems and Issues That affect the School Science Program
The Integrated Approach
Curriculum Integration
Curriculum Integration
Curriculum Integration
Curriculum Integration
Curriculum Integration
Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment
Key Reasons for Science in Grades K-8
Building Positive Attitudes Is Important
Building Foundations for Understandings
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Goals and Objectives for K-8 Science
Goals for K-8 Science
To Become Scientifically Literate
Terms That Are Basic to Understanding Science and Attaining the Goal of Scientific Literacy
To Solve Problems by Thinking Critically and Creatively
To Understand Our Environment and the Problems of Preserving It and Making It Better
To Understand How Science, Technology, and Society Are Inextricably Interconnected
To Live Successfully and Productively in a Constantly Changing World
To Grow Intellectually, Emotionally, and Socially According to Individual Abilities, Interests, and Needs
Objectives for K-8 Science
Aims, Goals, and Objectives and their Roles in Planning for Science Instruction
Learning Targets and Goal Indicators
Overt and Covert Performance Outcomes
Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism
Teaching Toward Multiple Objectives, Understandings, and Appreciations
Preparing Instructional Objectives
Components: The ABCDs of Writing Objectives
Classification of Learning Objectives
The Domains of Learning and the Developmental Needs of Children
Using the Taxonomies
Learning That Is Not Immediately Observable
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Understanding the Nature of Science and Sciencing
Understanding the Nature of Science
Understanding Children and How They Learn
Styles of Learning and Implications for Science Teaching
Understanding Sciencing
Understanding That the Process of Sciencing Is Cyclic
Pedagogy for Sciencing: The Learning Cycle
Understanding the Sciencing Cycle Processes
Sciencing Cycle and the Learning Cycle
The Processes: Thinking Skills
Teaching Thinking for Intelligent Behavior: Developing a Sense of "I Can" and the Feeling of "I Enjoy"
Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior
Understanding the Origin and Nature of Misconceptions
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Questioning and Other Behaviors That Provide the Foundation for Active Science Learning
Teacher Behaviors That Facilitate Student Learning
Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification
Structuring the Learning Environment
Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability
Demonstrating Withitness and Overlapping
Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities
Modeling Appropriate Behaviors
Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data
Creating a Psychologically Safe Environment
Clarifying Whenever Necessary
Using Periods of Silence
Questioning Thoughtfully
Questioning: The Foundation for Sciencing
Purposes for Using Questions
Questions to Avoid Asking
Types of Cognitive Questions
Levels of Cognitive Questions and the Relationship to Student Thinking
Guidelines for Using Questioning
Preparing Questions
Implementing Questioning
Questions from Students: The Question-Driven Science Classroom
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Strategies for Helping Children Learn Science
Modes of Instruction
Multilevel Teaching: A Blend of Modes
Inquiry Teaching and Discovery Learning
Problem Solving
Inquiry versus Discovery
Problem Solving and Decision Making in the Real World Is an Integrated and Interdisciplinary Inquiry Activity
The Critical Thinking Skills (Processes) of Discovery and Inquiry
General Rule in Selecting Learning Activities
The Classroom as a Learning Laboratory
Guidelines for Doing Exploratory Investigations
Teacher Talk: Formal and Informal
Teacher Talk: Cautions and General Guidelines
Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines
Grouping Children for Instruction
Mastery Learning and Personalized Instruction
Today's Emphasis: Quality Learning for Each Child
Learning Alone
Learning in Pairs
The Learning Center
Learning in Small Groups
Cooperative Learning
The Cooperative Learning Group
Whole-Class Discussion
Equality in the Classroom: Ensuring Equity
Demonstrations
Guidelines for Using a Demonstration
Learning from Assignments and Homework
Purposes for Assignments
Guidelines for Using Assignments
Opportunities for Recovery
Project-Centered Learning
Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning
Student Journals
Integrating Strategies for Integrated Learning
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Selecting and Using Media and Other Instructional Aids and Resources
Printed Materials, the Internet, and Visual Displays
Student Textbooks
The Internet
Professional Journals and Periodicals
The ERIC Information Network
Copying Printed Materials
The Classroom Writing Board
The Classroom Bulletin Board
The Community as a Resource
Home and School Connections
Service Learning
Professional Resources File
Telecommunications Networks
Guest Speakers
Field Trips
Media Tools
When Equipment Malfunctions
The Overhead Projector
Multimedia Program
Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools
The Placement and Use of Computers
Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Planning the Instruction
Unit Planning
Steps for Planning and Developing a Unit of Instruction
Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Duration
Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of Any Unit Plan
Lesson Planning
Assumptions about Lesson Planning
A Continual Process
Well Planned but Subject to Change
The Problem of Time
Format, Components, and Samples
Personalizing the Unit and Lessons: Celebrating, Planning for, and Teaching with Student Diversity
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
The Challenge
Instructional Practices That Provide for Student Differences: General Guidelines
Recognizing and Working with Students with Special Needs
Recognizing and Working with Students of Diversity and Differences
Recognizing and Working with Students Who Are Gifted
Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Assessing and Reporting Student Achievement
Purposes and Principles That Guide the Assessment Program
Terms Used in Assessment: A Clarification
Assessment and Evaluation
Measurement and Assessment
Validity and Reliability
Authentic Assessment
Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessment
Assessing Student Learning: Three Avenues
Assessing What a Student Says and Does
Assessing What a Student Writes
Assessment for Affective and Psychomotor Domain Learning
Student Participation in Assessment
Using Student Portfolios
Portfolio Assessment: Knowing and Dealing with Its Limitations
Using Checklists
Guidelines for Using Portfolios for Assessment
Maintaining Records of Student Achievement
Teacher's Log with a Caution about Anecdotal Comments
Grading and Marking Student Achievement
Criterion-Referenced versus Norm-Referenced Grading
Determining Grades
About Makeup Work
Testing for Achievement
Standardized and Nonstandardized Tests
Purposes for Testing
Frequency for Testing
Test Construction
Administering Tests
Controlling Cheating
Determining the Time Needed to Take a Test
Preparing Assessment Items
Classification of Assessment Items
General Guidelines for Preparing for Assessment of Student Learning
Attaining Content Validity
Types of Assessment Items: Descriptions, Examples, and Guidelines for Preparing and Using
Arrangement
Completion Drawing
Completion Statement
Correction
Essay
Guidelines for Using Essay Items
Grouping
Identification
Matching
Multiple Choice
Guidelines for Using Multiple-Choice Items
Performance
Short-Explanation
True-False
Guidelines for Using True-False Items
Reporting Student Achievement
The Grade Report
Teacher Parental/Guardian Connections
Summary
Questions for Class Discussion
Basic Science Information, Learning Activities, and Other Resources: An Introduction to Inquiry
The Universe and Earth
The Universe
The Sun
The Solar System
The Effects of the Sun on the Earth
Earth's Moon
Beyond the Solar System
Space Exploration Programs
Student Books and Other Resources for "The Universe"
The Earth
The Composition of the Earth
Air
Forces that Shape and Change the Earth's Surface
Soil
Geologic History of the Earth
Water, Weather, and Climate
Water
The Earth's Sea
Winds
Water in the Air
Weather
Meteorology and Climatology
Living Things
Plants
Classification and Composition of Living Things
The Plant Kingdom
The Bryophytes
The Tracheophytes
Ferns, Horsetails, and Club Mosses
Roots
Stems
Leaves
Flowers
Fruits and Seeds
Caring for Earth's Plants
Neither Plant nor Animal
Classification of Organisms That Are Neither Plant nor Animal
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Slime Molds
Lichens
Algae
Protozoans
Animals
Classification of Animals
Sponges and Coelenterates
Worms
Echinoderms and Mollusks
Arthropods
Vertebrates
Fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Mammals
The Human Body
Makeup of the Human Body
Integumentary System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Nutrients
Digestive System
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Respiratory System
Urinary System
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Endocrine System
Matter, Energy, and Technology
Changes in Matter and Energy
The Structure of Matter
Energy
Nuclear Energy
Friction and Machines
Friction
Machines
Heat, Fire, and Fuels
The Nature of Heat
Temperature
Methods of Heat Travel and Their Effects
Fire
Fuels
Sound
Producing and Transmitting Sound
Musical Instruments
Light
The Nature of Light
Visible Light
The Reflection of Light
The Refraction of Light
Color
Magnetism and Electricity
Magnetism
Static Electricity
Current Electricity
Electronics and Integrated Circuits
Bibliography
Index
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