Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

ISBN-10: 0131877488
ISBN-13: 9780131877481
Edition: 5th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $178.20
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Book details

List price: $178.20
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Pearson Education
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 976
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 5.434
Language: English

Rewritten throughout for enhanced clarity and readability without sacrificing content this best-seller offers a focus on problem-solving and engaging discussions of relevant applications. Effectively covers the essentials of allied health chemistry without excessive and unnecessary detail. Puts chemistry in the context of everyday life. Covers biochemistry thoroughly to allow for flexible treatment and places emphasis on its relevance to society.nbsp; Updates and expands content throughout in topics such as DNA, genomics, chemical messengers, the new food pyramid, and the modern view of nucleic acid chemistry and protein synthesis. Revises illustrations throughout for increased effectiveness. Redesigned diagrams and bulleted lists for a clearer layout. A useful resource for anyone working in the fields of nursing, physical therapy, agriculture, home economics, aquaculture or those who simply have a desire to learn more about the basic concepts of chemistry and biochemistry.

John McMurry: educated at Harvard and Columbia, has taught approximately 17,000 students in general and organic chemistry over a 30-year period. A Professor of Chemistry at Cornell University since 1980, Dr. McMurry previously spent 13 years on the faculty at the University of California at Santa Cruz. He has received numerous awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1969ndash;71), the National Institute of Health Career Development Award (1975ndash;80), the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award (1986ndash;87), and the Max Planck Research Award (1991).Dr. David S. Ballantine, Jr., received his B.S. in Chemistry in 1977 from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, VA., and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1983 from the University of Maryland at College Park. After several years as a researcher at the Naval Research Labs in Washington DC he joined the faculty in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Northern Illinois University, where he has been a professor for the past twenty years. He was awarded the Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award in 1998, and was recently named the departmental Director of Undergraduate Studies. In addition, he is the faculty advisor to the NIU Chemistry Club, an ACS Student Affiliate program.Carl A. Hoeger received his BS in Chemistry from San Diego State Unversity and his Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1983. After a postdoctoral stint at the University of California, Riverside, he joined the Peptide Biology Laboratory at the Salk Institute in 1985 where he ran the NIH Peptide Facility while doing basic research in the development of peptide agonists and antagonists. During this time he also taught general, organic, and biochemistry at San Diego City College, Palomar College, and Miramar College. He joined the teaching faculty at UCSD in 1998. Dr. Hoeger has been teaching chemistry to undergraduates for over 20 years, where he continues to explore the use of technology in the classroom. In 2004 he won the Paul and Barbara Saltman Distinguished Teaching Award from UCSD. His is currently the General Chemistry coordinator at UCSD, where he is also responsible for the training and guidance of the Chemistry and Biochemistry departments' 100 + teaching assistants.Dr. Virginia E. Peterson received her B.S. in Chemistry in 1967 from the University of Washington in Seattle, and her Ph.D. in Biochemistry in 1980 from the University of Maryland at College Park. Between her undergraduate and graduate years she worked in lipid, diabetes and heart disease research at Stanford University. Following her Ph.D. she took a position in the Biochemistry Department at the University of Missouri in Columbia, and is an Associate Professor. Currently she is the Director of Undergraduate Advising for the department and teaches both senior capstone classes and biochemistry classes for non-science majors. Awards include both the college level and the university-wide Excellence in Teaching Award and, in 2006, the University's Outstanding Advisor Award and the State of Missouri Outstanding University Advisor Award. Dr. Peterson believes in public service and in 2003 received the Silver Beaver Award for service from the Boy Scouts of America.

Applications and Connections
Preface
A Guide to Using This Text
Matter and Life
Chemistry: The Central Science
States of Matter
Classification of Matter
An Example of a Chemical Reaction
Application: Chemicals, Toxicity, and Risk
Chemical Elements and Symbols
Elements and the Periodic Table
Application: Mercury and Mercury Poisoning
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Measurements in Chemistry
Physical Quantities
Measuring Mass
Measuring Length and Volume
Measurement and Significant Figures
Application: Apothecary Units
Scientific Notation
Application: Powers of 10
Rounding Off Numbers
Problem Solving: Converting a Quantity from One Unit to Another
Problem Solving: Estimating Answers
Measuring Temperature
Application: Obesity-A Large Problem
Units of Energy and Heat
Density
Application: Measuring Body Fat
Specific Gravity
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Atoms and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory
Elements and Atomic Number
Isotopes and Atomic Weight
The Periodic Table
Application: Are Atoms Real?
Some Characteristics of Different Groups
Application: The Origin of Chemical Elements
Electronic Structure of Atoms
Electron Configurations
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
Application: Atoms and Light
Connection: Art Conservator
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Ionic Compounds
Ions
Periodic Properties and Ion Formation
Ionic Bonds
Some Properties of Ionic Compounds
Ions and the Octet Rule
Application: Minerals and Gems
Electron-Dot Symbols
Ions of Some Common Elements
Naming Ions
Application: Salt
Polyatomic Ions
Application: Biologically Important Ions
Formulas of Ionic Compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds
H[superscript +] and OH[superscript -] Ions: An Introduction to Acids and Bases
Connection: Physical Therapist
Application: Osteoporosis
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Molecular Compounds
Covalent Bonds
Covalent Bonds and the Periodic Table
Multiple Covalent Bonds
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
Application: Carbon Monoxide-A Surprising Molecule
Molecular Formulas and Lewis Structures
Drawing Lewis Structures
The Shapes of Molecules
Application: VERY Big Molecules
Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity
Polar Molecules
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
Application: Damascenone, by Any Other Name, Would Smell as Sweet
Characteristics of Molecular Compounds
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Chemical Reactions: Classification and Mass Relationships
Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
Avogadro's Number and the Mole
Gram-Mole Conversions
Application: Did Ben Franklin Have Avogadro's Number? A Ballpark Calculation
Mole Relationships and Chemical Equations
Mass Relationships and Chemical Equations
Percent Yield
Classes of Chemical Reactions
Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
Application: Gout and Kidney Stones: Problems in Solubility
Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
Redox Reactions
Applications: Batteries
Recognizing Redox Reactions
Application: Photography-A Series of Redox Reactions
Net Ionic Equations
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Chemical Reactions: Energy, Rates, and Equilibrium
Energy and Chemical Bonds
Heat Changes during Chemical Reactions
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Why Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Free Energy
Application: Energy from Food
How Do Chemical Reactions Occur? Reaction Rates
Effects of Temperature, Concentration, and Catalysts on Reaction Rates
Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium
Application: Regulation of Body Temperature
Equilibrium Equations and Equilibrium Constants
Le Chatelier's Principle: The Effect of Changing Conditions on Equilibria
Application: Nitrogen Fixation
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Gases, Liquids, and Solids
States of Matter and Their Changes
Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Pressure
Boyle's Law: The Relation between Volume and Pressure
Application: Blood Pressure
Charles's Law: The Relation between Volume and Temperature
Gay-Lussac's Law: The Relation between Pressure and Temperature
The Combined Gas Law
Avogadro's Law: The Relation between Volume and Molar Amount
The Ideal Gas Law
Partial Pressure and Dalton's Law
Intermolecular Forces
Application: Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Liquids
Water: A Unique Liquid
Solids
Changes of State
Application: Biomaterials for Joint Replacement
Application: CO[subscript 2] as an Environmentally Friendly Solvent
Connection: Respiratory Therapist
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Solutions
Mixtures and Solutions
The Solution Process
Solid Hydrates
Solubility
The Effect of Temperature on Solubility
The Effect of Pressure on Solubility: Henry's Law
Units of Concentration
Application: Breathing and Oxygen Transport
Dilution
Ions in Solution: Electrolytes
Electrolytes in Body Fluids: Equivalents and Milliequivalents
Properties of Solutions
Application: Electrolytes, Fluid Replacement, and Sports Drinks
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Dialysis
Application: Timed-Release Medications
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution
Some Common Acids and Bases
The Bronsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases
Water as Both an Acid and a Base
Some Common Acid-Base Reactions
Application: Ulcers and Antacids
Acid and Base Strength
Acid Dissociation Constants
Dissociation of Water
Measuring Acidity in Aqueous Solution: pH
Working with pH
Laboratory Determination of Acidity
Application: pH of Body Fluids
Buffer Solutions
Buffers in the Body
Application: Buffers in the Body-Acidosis and Alkalosis
Acid and Base Equivalents
Titration
Application: Acid Rain
Acidity and Basicity of Salt Solutions
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear Reactions
The Discovery and Nature of Radioactivity
Stable and Unstable Isotopes
Nuclear Decay
Radioactive Half-Life
Application: Medical Uses of Radioactivity
Radioactive Decay Series
Ionizing Radiation
Detecting Radiation
Application: Irradiated Food
Measuring Radiation
Artificial Transmutation
Application: Body Imaging
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
Application: Archaeological Radiocarbon Dating
Connection: Nuclear Medicine Technician
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
The Nature of Organic Molecules
Families of Organic Molecules: Functional Groups
The Structure of Organic Molecules: Alkanes and Their Isomers
Drawing Organic Structures
Application: Natural versus Synthetic
The Shapes of Organic Molecules
Naming Alkanes
Application: Displaying Molecular Shapes
Properties of Alkanes
Reactions of Alkanes
Cycloalkanes
Application: Petroleum
Drawing and Naming Cycloalkanes
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds
Alkenes and Alkynes
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
The Structure of Alkenes: Cis-Trans Isomerism
Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes
Types of Organic Reactions
Application: The Chemistry of Vision
Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
How Alkene Addition Reactions Occur
Alkene Polymers
Application: Polymer Applications-Currency
Aromatic Compounds and the Structure of Benzene
Application: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cancer
Naming Aromatic Compounds
Reactions of Aromatic Compounds
Application: Why We See Color
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Some Compounds with Oxygen, Sulfur, or a Halogen
Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
Some Common Alcohols
Naming Alcohols
Properties of Alcohols
Reactions of Alcohols
Application: Ethyl Alcohol as a Drug and a Poison
Phenols
Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols
Application: Phenols as Antioxidants
Ethers
Thiols and Disulfides
Application: Inhaled Anesthetics
Halogen-Containing Compounds
Application: Chlorofluorocarbons and the Ozone Hole
Connection: Resource Conservationist
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Amines
Amines
Application: Chemical Information
Properties of Amines
Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds
Application: NO-A Small Molecule with Big Responsibilities
Basicity of Amines
Application: Organic Compounds in Body Fluids and the "Solubility Switch"
Amine Salts
Amines in Plants: Alkaloids
Application: Toxicology
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Aldehydes and Ketones
The Carbonyl Group
Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
Application: Chemical Warfare among the Insects
Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Application: Vanilla: What Kind Is Best?
Some Common Aldehydes and Ketones
Oxidation of Aldehydes
Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
Application: Is It Poisonous, or Isn't It?
Addition of Alcohols: Hemiacetals and Acetals
Connection: Sensory Evaluation Manager
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives
Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives: Properties and Names
Some Common Carboxylic Acids
Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Application: Acids for the Skin
Application: Acid Salts as Food Additives
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: Ester and Amide Formation
Aspirin and Other Over-the-Counter Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Hydrolysis of Esters and Amides
Polyamides and Polyesters
Application: Kevlar - A Life-Saving Polymer
Phosphoric Acid Derivatives
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Summary of Reactions
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Amino Acids and Proteins
An Introduction to Biochemistry
Protein Structure and Function: An Overview
Amino Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids
Application: Nutrition in Health and Disease
Handedness
Molecular Handedness and Amino Acids
Primary Protein Structure
Application: Proteins in the Diet
Shape-Determining Interactions in Proteins
Application: Protein Analysis by Electrophoresis
Secondary Protein Structure
Tertiary Protein Structure
Quaternary Protein Structure
Application: Collagen-A Tale of Two Diseases
Chemical Properties of Proteins
Application: Prions-Proteins that Cause Disease
Connection: Food Technologist
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Enzymes and Vitamins
Catalysis by Enzymes
Enzyme Cofactors
Enzyme Classification
Application: Lead Poisoning and an Antidote
Application: Biocatalysis-Food and Chemicals
How Enzymes Work
Effect of Concentration on Enzyme Activity
Effect of Temperature and pH on Enzyme Activity
Application: Extremozymes-Enzymes from the Edge
Enzyme Regulation: Feedback and Allosteric Control
Application: Enzymes in Medical Diagnosis
Enzyme Regulation: Inhibition
Enzyme Regulation: Covalent Modification and Genetic Control
Application: Enzyme Inhibitors as Drugs
Vitamins
Application: Vitamins, Minerals, and Food Labels
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Chemical Messengers: Hormones, Neurotransmitters, and Drugs
Messenger Molecules
Hormones and the Endocrine System
Application: Homeostasis
How Hormones Work: Epinephrine and Fight-or-Flight
Amino Acid Derivatives and Polypeptides as Hormones
Steroid Hormones
Application: Plant Hormones
Neurotransmitters
How Neurotransmitters Work: Acetylcholine, Its Agonists and Antagonists
Histamine and Antihistamines
Application: And from This Little Frog ...
Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine
Neuropeptides and Pain Relief
Drug Discovery and Drug Design
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
The Generation of Biochemical Energy
Energy and Life
Energy and Biochemical Reactions
Application: Life without Sunlight
Cells and Their Structure
An Overview of Metabolism and Energy Production
Strategies of Metabolism: ATP and Energy Transfer
Strategies of Metabolism: Metabolic Pathways and Coupled Reactions
Application: Basal Metabolism
Strategies of Metabolism: Oxidized and Reduced Coenzymes
The Citric Acid Cycle
The Electron-Transport Chain and ATP Production
Application: Energy Undone-Blockers and Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Harmful Oxygen By-Products and Antioxidant Vitamins
Application: Plants and Photosynthesis
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Carbohydrates
An Introduction to Carbohydrates
Handedness of Carbohydrates
The D and L Families of Sugars: Drawing Sugar Molecules
Application: Chirality Meets the Marketplace
Structure of Glucose and Other Monosaccharides
Application: Carbohydrates in the Diet
Some Important Monosaccharides
Reactions of Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Application: Cell Walls-Rigid Defense Systems
Variations on the Carbohydrate Theme
Some Important Polysaccharides
Application: Cell-Surface Carbohydrates and Blood Type
Application: Dietary Fiber
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Digestion of Carbohydrates
Glucose Metabolism: An Overview
Glycolysis
Entry of Other Sugars into Glycolysis
The Fate of Pyruvate
Application: Tooth Decay
Energy Output in Complete Catabolism of Glucose
Application: Microbial Fermentations: Ancient and Modern
Regulation of Glucose Metabolism and Energy Production
Metabolism in Fasting and Starvation
Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus
Application: Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes
Glycogen Metabolism: Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis
Application: The Biochemistry of Running
Gluconeogenesis: Glucose from Noncarbohydrates
Application: Polysaccharides-What Are They Good For?
Connection: Dietitian
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Lipids
Structure and Classification of Lipids
Fatty Acids and Their Esters
Application: Lipids in the Diet
Properties of Fats and Oils
Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols
Application: Detergents
Cell Membrane Lipids: Phospholipids and Glycolipids
Cell Membrane Lipids: Cholesterol
Application: Butter and Its Substitutes
Structure of Cell Membranes
Application: Liposomes for Health and Beauty
Transport Across Cell Membranes
Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Lipid Metabolism
Digestion of Triacylglycerols
Lipoproteins for Lipid Transport
Application: Lipids and Atherosclerosis
Triacylglycerol Metabolism: An Overview
Application: Fat Storage: A Good Thing or Not?
Storage and Mobilization of Triacylglycerols
Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Energy from Fatty Acid Oxidation
Ketone Bodies and Ketoacidosis
Application: The Liver, Clearinghouse for Metabolism
Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
DNA, Chromosomes, and Genes
Composition of Nucleic Acids
The Structure of Nucleic Acid Chains
Base Pairing in DNA: The Watson-Crick Model
Nucleic Acids and Heredity
Application: Viruses and AIDS
Replication of DNA
Structure and Function of RNA
Transcription: RNA Synthesis
The Genetic Code
Translation: Transfer RNA and Protein Synthesis
Application: "Bird Flu": The Next Epidemic?
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Genomics
Mapping the Human Genome
A Trip Along a Chromosome
Application: Whose Genome Is It?
Mutations and Polymorphisms
Recombinant DNA
Application: Serendipity and the Polymerase Chain Reaction
Application: DNA Fingerprinting
Genomics: Using What We Know
Connection: Forensic Scientist
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
Digestion of Protein
Amino Acid Metabolism: An Overview
Amino Acid Catabolism: The Amino Group
The Urea Cycle
Application: Pathways to Gout
Amino Acid Catabolism: The Carbon Atoms
Application: The Importance of Essential Amino Acids and Effects of Deficiencies
Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Body Fluids
Body Water and Its Solutes
Fluid Balance
Blood
Plasma Proteins, White Bloods Cells, and Immunity
Application: The Blood-Brain Barrier
Blood Clotting
Red Blood Cells and Blood Gases
The Kidney and Urine Formation
Urine Composition and Function
Application: Automated Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Connection: Veterinary Lab Technician
Key Words
Summary: Revisiting the Chapter Goals
Understanding Key Concepts
Additional Problems
Appendices
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Photo Credits
Index

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