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Preface | |

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Introduction | |

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Statistics: The Science of Data | |

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Fundamental Elements of Statistics | |

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Types of Data | |

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The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking | |

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A Guide to Statistical Methods Presented in This Text | |

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Statistics in Action: Contamination of Fish in the Tennessee River: Collecting the Data | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Graphical and Numerical Methods for Describing Qualitative Data | |

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Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data | |

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Numerical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Measures of Variation | |

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Measures of Relative Standing | |

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Methods for Detecting Outliers | |

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Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Statistics | |

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Statistics in Action: Characteristics of Contaminated Fish in the Tennessee River, Alabama | |

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Probability | |

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The Role of Probability in Statistics | |

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Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability | |

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Compound Events | |

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Complementary Events | |

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Conditional Probability | |

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Probability Rules for Unions and Intersections | |

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Bayes' Rule (Optional) | |

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Some Counting Rules | |

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Probability and Statistics: An Example | |

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Random Sampling | |

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Statistics in Action: Assessing Predictors of Software Defects in NASA Spacecraft Instrument Code | |

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Discrete Random Variables | |

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Discrete Random Variables | |

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The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable | |

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Expected Values for Random Variables | |

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Some Useful Expectation Theorems | |

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Bernoulli Trials | |

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The Binomial Probability Distribution | |

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The Multinomial Probability Distribution | |

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The Negative Binomial and the Geometric Probability Distributions | |

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The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution | |

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The Poisson Probability Distribution | |

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Moments and Moment Generating Functions (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: The Reliability of a "One-Shot" Device | |

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Continuous Random Variables | |

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Continuous Random Variables | |

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The Density Function for a Continuous Random Variable | |

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Expected Values for Continuous Random Variables | |

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The Uniform Probability Distribution | |

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The Normal Probability Distribution | |

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Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality | |

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Gamma-Type Probability Distributions | |

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The Weibull Probability Distribution | |

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Beta-Type Probability Distributions | |

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Moments and Moment Generating Functions (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: Super Weapons Development-Optimizing the Hit Ratio | |

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Bivariate Probability Distributions and Sampling Distributions | |

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Bivariate Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables | |

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Bivariate Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables | |

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The Expected Value of Functions of Two Random Variables | |

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Independence | |

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The Covariance and Correlation of Two Random Variables | |

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Probability Distributions and Expected Values of Functions of Random Variables (Optional) | |

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Sampling Distributions | |

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Approximating a Sampling Distribution by Monte Carlo Simulation | |

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The Sampling Distributions of Means and Sums | |

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Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

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Sampling Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution | |

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Statistics in Action: Availability of an Up/Down Maintained System | |

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Estimation Using Confidence Intervals | |

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Point Estimators and their Properties | |

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Finding Point Estimators: Classical Methods of Estimation | |

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Finding Interval Estimators: The Pivotal Method | |

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Estimation of a Population Mean | |

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Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Means: Independent Samples | |

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Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Means: Matched Pairs | |

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Estimation of a Population Proportion | |

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Estimation of the Difference Between Two Population Proportions | |

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Estimation of a Population Variance | |

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Estimation of the Ratio of Two Population Variances | |

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Choosing the Sample Size | |

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Alternative Interval Estimation Methods: Bootstrapping and Bayesian Methods (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: Bursting Strength of PET Beverage Bottles | |

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Tests of Hypotheses | |

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The Relationship Between Statistical Tests of Hypotheses and Confidence Intervals | |

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Elements and Properties of a Statistical Test | |

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Finding Statistical Tests: Classical Methods | |

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Choosing the Null and Alternative Hypotheses | |

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Testing a Population Mean | |

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The Observed Significance Level for a Test | |

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Testing the Difference Between Two Population Means: Independent Samples | |

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Testing the Difference Between Two Population Means: Matched Pairs | |

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Testing a Population Proportion | |

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Testing the Difference Between Two Population Proportions | |

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Testing a Population Variance | |

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Testing the Ratio of Two Population Variances | |

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Alternative Testing Procedures: Bootstrapping and Bayesian Methods (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: Comparing Methods for Dissolving Drug Tablets-Dissolution Method Equivalence Testing | |

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Categorical Data Analysis | |

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Categorical Data and Multinomial Probabilities | |

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Estimating Category Probabilities in a One-Way Table | |

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Testing Category Probabilities in a One-Way Table | |

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Inferences About Category Probabilities in a Two-Way (Contingency) Table | |

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Contingency Tables with Fixed Marginal Totals | |

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Exact Tests for Independence in a Contingency Table Analysis (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: The Public's Perception of Engineers and Engineering | |

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Simple Linear Regression | |

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Regression Models | |

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Model Assumptions | |

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Estimating [beta subscript 0] and [beta subscript 1]: The Method of Least Squares | |

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Properties of the Least Squares Estimators | |

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An Estimator of [sigma superscript 2] | |

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Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope [beta subscript 1] | |

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The Coefficient of Correlation | |

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The Coefficient of Determination | |

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Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction | |

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A Complete Example | |

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A Summary of the Steps to Follow in Simple Linear Regression | |

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Statistics in Action: Can Dowsers Really Detect Water? | |

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Multiple Regression Analysis | |

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General Form of a Multiple Regression Model | |

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Model Assumptions | |

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Fitting the Model: The Method of Least Squares | |

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Computations Using Matrix Algebra: Estimating and Making Inferences About the Individual [beta] Parameters | |

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Assessing Overall Model Adequacy | |

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A Confidence Interval for E(y) and a Prediction Interval for a Future Value of y | |

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A First-Order Model with Quantitative Predictors | |

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An Interaction Model with Quantitative Predictors | |

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A Quadratic (Second-Order) Model with a Quantitative Predictor | |

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Checking Assumptions: Residual Analysis | |

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Some Pitfalls: Estimability, Multicollinearity, and Extrapolation | |

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A Summary of the Steps to Follow in a Multiple Regression Analysis | |

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Statistics in Action: Bid-Rigging in the Highway Construction Industry | |

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Model Building | |

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Introduction: Why Model Building Is Important | |

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The Two Types of Independent Variables: Quantitative and Qualitative | |

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Models with a Single Quantitative Independent Variable | |

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Models with Two Quantitative Independent Variables | |

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Coding Quantitative Independent Variables (Optional) | |

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Models with One Qualitative Independent Variable | |

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Models with Both Quantitative and Qualitative Independent Variables | |

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Tests for Comparing Nested Models | |

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External Model Validation (Optional) | |

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Stepwise Regression | |

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Statistics in Action: Deregulation of the Intrastate Trucking Industry | |

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Principles of Experimental Design | |

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Introduction | |

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Experimental Design Terminology | |

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Controlling the Information in an Experiment | |

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Noise-Reducing Designs | |

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Volume-Increasing Designs | |

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Selecting the Sample Size | |

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The Importance of Randomization | |

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Statistics in Action: Anticorrosive Behavior of Epoxy Coatings Augmented with Zinc | |

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The Analysis of Variance for Designed Experiments | |

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Introduction | |

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The Logic Behind an Analysis of Variance | |

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One-Factor Completely Randomized Designs | |

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Randomized Block Designs | |

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Two-Factor Factorial Experiments | |

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More Complex Factorial Designs (Optional) | |

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Nested Sampling Designs (Optional) | |

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Multiple Comparisons of Treatment Means | |

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Checking ANOVA Assumptions | |

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Statistics in Action: On the Trail of the Cockroach | |

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Nonparametric Statistics | |

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Introduction: Distribution-Free Tests | |

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Testing for Location of a Single Population | |

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Comparing Two Populations: Independent Random Samples | |

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Comparing Two Populations: Matched-Pairs Design | |

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Comparing Three or More Populations: Completely Randomized Design | |

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Comparing Three or More Populations: Randomized Block Design | |

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Nonparametric Regression | |

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Statistics in Action: Deadly Exposure: Agent Orange and Vietnam Vets | |

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Statistical Process and Quality Control | |

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Total Quality Management | |

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Variable Control Charts | |

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Control Chart for Means: x-Chart | |

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Control Chart for Process Variation: R-Chart | |

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Detecting Trends in a Control Chart: Runs Analysis | |

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Control Chart for Percent Defectives: p-Chart | |

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Control Chart for the Number of Defectives per Item: c-Chart | |

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Tolerance Limits | |

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Capability Analysis (Optional) | |

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Acceptance Sampling for Defectives | |

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Other Sampling Plans (Optional) | |

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Evolutionary Operations (Optional) | |

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Statistics in Action: Testing Jet Fuel Additive for Safety | |

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Product and System Reliability | |

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Introduction | |

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Failure Time Distributions | |

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Hazard Rates | |

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Life Testing: Censored Sampling | |

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Estimating the Parameters of an Exponential Failure Time Distribution | |

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Estimating the Parameters of a Weibull Failure Time Distribution | |

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System Reliability | |

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Statistics in Action: Modeling the Hazard Rate of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Deterioration | |

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Matrix Algebra | |

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Matrices and Matrix Multiplication | |

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Identity Matrices and Matrix Inversion | |

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Solving Systems of Simultaneous Linear Equations | |

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A Procedure for Inverting a Matrix | |

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Useful Statistical Tables | |

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Random Numbers | |

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Cumulative Binomial Probabilities | |

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Exponentials | |

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Cumulative Poisson Probabilities | |

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Normal Curve Areas | |

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Gamma Function | |

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Critical Values for Student's T | |

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Critical Values of x[superscript 2] | |

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Percentage Points of the F Distribution, [alpha] = .10 | |

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Percentage Points of the F Distribution, [alpha] = .05 | |

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Percentage Points of the F Distribution, [alpha] = .025 | |

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Percentage Points of the F Distribution, [alpha] = .01 | |

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Percentage Points of the Studentized Range q(p,v), [alpha] = .05 | |

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Percentage Points of the Studentized Range q(p,v), [alpha] = .01 | |

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Critical Values of T[subscript L] and T[subscript U] for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Independent Samples | |

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Critical Values of T[subscript 0] for the Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test | |

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Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient | |

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Critical Values of C for the Theil Zero-Slope Test | |

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Factors Used When Constructing Control Charts | |

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Values of K for Tolerance Limits for Normal Distributions | |

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Sample Size n for Nonparametric Tolerance Limits | |

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Sample Size Code Letters: MIL-STD-105D | |

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A Portion of the Master Table for Normal Inspection (Single Sampling): MIL-STD-105D | |

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SAS for Windows Tutorial | |

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MINITAB for Windows Tutorial | |

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SPSS for Windows Tutorial | |

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References | |

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Selected Short Answers | |

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Credits | |

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Index | |