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Consumer Behavior

ISBN-10: 0131869604
ISBN-13: 9780131869608
Edition: 9th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $223.20
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Description: With a strong empirical and market segmentation approach, this book focuses on how the Internet has changed the way people obtain information about potential purchases, giving readers the most up-to-date material on how technology is changing their  More...

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Book details

List price: $223.20
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 2/17/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 656
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.300
Language: English

With a strong empirical and market segmentation approach, this book focuses on how the Internet has changed the way people obtain information about potential purchases, giving readers the most up-to-date material on how technology is changing their lives as consumers. The Thirty-two mini-cases help readers learn by applying the theory, drawing on current business news to demonstrate specific consumer behavior concepts. This edition now includes thirty-two Active Learning mini-cases. A clear consumer decision making model is set out in each chapter to facilitate learningpresented in the first chapter, this model serves as a structural framework for the conceptsthe building blocksexamined in the following chapters. The books final chapter ties all of these concepts together so readers see the interrelationships and relevance of individual concepts to consumer decision-making. For those studying consumer behavior and/or marketing.

Preface
Introduction
Consumer Behavior: Its Origins and Strategic Applications
Development of the marketing concept
The marketing concept
Implementing the marketing concept
Segmentation, targeting, and positioning
The marketing mix
Customer value, satisfaction, and retention
Providing customer value
Customer satisfaction
Customer retention
The impact of digital technologies on marketing strategies
Challenges marketers face
Marketing ethics and social responsibility
Consumer behavior and decision making are interdisciplinary
A simplified model of consumer decision making
The plan of this book
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumer Research
Consumer research paradigms
Quantitative research
Qualitative research
Combining qualitative and quantitative research findings
The consumer research process
Developing research objectives
Collecting secondary data
Designing primary research
Data analysis and reporting research findings
Conducting a research study
Ethics in consumer research
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Market Segmentation
What is market segmentation?
Who uses market segmentation?
How market segmentation operates
Bases for segmentation
Geographic segmentation
Demographic segmentation
Psychological segmentation
Psychographic segmentation
Sociocultural segmentation
Use-related segmentation
Usage-situation segmentation
Benefit segmentation
Hybrid segmentation approaches
Criteria for effective targeting of market segments
Identification
Sufficiency
Stability
Accessibility
Implementing segmentation strategies
Concentrated versus differentiated marketing
Countersegmentation
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
The Consumer as an Individual
Consumer Motivation
Motivation as a psychological force
Needs
Goals
Positive and negative motivation
Rational versus emotional motives
The dynamics of motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
Success and failure influence goals
Multiplicity of needs and variation of goals
Arousal of motives
Types and systems of needs
Hierarchy of needs
An evaluation of the need hierarchy and marketing applications
A trio of needs
The measurement of motives
Motivational research
Evaluation of motivational research
Ethics and consumer motivation
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Personality and Consumer Behavior
What is personality?
The nature of personality
Theories of personality
Freudian theory
Neo-Freudian personality theory
Trait theory
Personality and understanding consumer diversity
Consumer innovativeness and related personality traits
Cognitive personality factors
From consumer materialism to compulsive consumption
Consumer ethnocentrism: responses to foreign-made products
Brand personality
Brand personification
Product personality and gender
Product personality and geography
Personality and color
Self and self-image
One or multiple selves
The extended self
Altering the self
Virtual personality or self
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumer Perception
Elements of perception
Sensation
The absolute threshold
The differential threshold
Subliminal perception
Dynamics of perception
Perceptual selection
Perceptual organization
Perceptual interpretation
Consumer imagery
Product positioning
Product repositioning
Positioning of services
Perceived price
Perceived quality
Price/quality relationship
Retail store image
Manufacturers' image
Perceived risk
Perception of risk varies
How consumers handle risk
Ethics and consumer perception
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumer Learning
The elements of consumer learning
Motivation
Cues
Response
Reinforcement
Behavioral learning theories
Classical conditioning
Instrumental conditioning
Modeling or observational learning
Cognitive learning theory
Information processing
Involvement theory
Measures of consumer learning
Recognition and recall measures
Ethics and consumer learning
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumer Attitude Formation and Change
What are attitudes?
The attitude "object"
Attitudes are a learned predisposition
Attitudes have consistency
Attitudes occur within a situation
Structural models of attitudes
Tricomponent attitude model
Multiattribute attitude models
Theory of trying-to-consume model
Attitude-toward-the-ad models
Attitude formation
How attitudes are learned
Sources of influence on attitude formation
Personality factors
Strategies of attitude change
Changing the basic motivational function
Associating the product with a special group, event, or cause
Resolving two conflicting attitudes
Altering components of the multiattribute model
Changing beliefs about competitors' brands
The elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
Behavior can precede or follow attitude formation
Cognitive dissonance theory
Attribution theory
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Communication and Consumer Behavior
Components of communication
The sender
The receiver
The medium
The message
Feedback
The communications process
The message initiator (source)
The target audience (receivers)
Feedback-the receiver's response
Designing persuasive communications
Communications strategy
Target audience
Media strategy
Message strategies
Message structure and presentation
Marketing communication and ethics
Precision targeting
The contents of promotional messages
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumers in Their Social and Cultural Settings
Reference Groups and Family Influences
What is a group?
Understanding the power of reference groups
A broadened perspective on reference groups
Factors that affect reference group influence
Selected consumer-related reference groups
Friendship groups
Shopping groups
Work groups
Virtual groups or communities
Consumer-action groups
Celebrity and other reference group appeals
Celebrities
The expert
The "common man"
The executive and employee spokesperson
Trade or spokes-characters
Other reference group appeals
The family is a concept in flux
The changing U.S. family
Socialization of family members
Consumer socialization of children
Adult consumer socialization
Intergenerational socialization
Other functions of the family
Economic well-being
Emotional support
Suitable family lifestyles
Family decision making and consumption-related roles
Key family consumption roles
Dynamics of husband-wife decision making
The expanding role of children in family decision making
The family life cycle
Traditional family life cycle
Modifications-the nontraditional FLC
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Social Class and Consumer Behavior
What is social class?
Social class and social status
The dynamics of status consumption
Social class is hierarchical and a form of segmentation
Social-class categories
The measurement of social class
Subjective measures
Reputational measures
Objective measures
Lifestyle profiles of the social classes
China: pursuing a middle-class lifestyle
Social-class mobility
Some signs of downward mobility
Is horatio alger dead?
Geodemographic clustering
The affluent consumer
The media exposure of the affluent consumer
Segmenting the affluent market
Middle-class consumers
Moving up to more "near" luxuries
The working class and other nonaffluent consumers
Recognizing the "techno-class"
The geek gets status
Selected consumer behavior applications of social class
Clothing, fashion, and shopping
The pursuit of leisure
Saving, spending, and credit
Social class and communication
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior
What is culture?
The invisible hand of culture
Culture satisfies needs
Culture is learned
How culture is learned
Enculturation and acculturation
Eanguage and symbols
Ritual
Culture is shared
Culture is dynamic
The measurement of culture
Content analysis
Consumer fieldwork
Value measurement survey instruments
American core values
Achievement and success
Activity
Efficiency and practicality
Progress
Material comfort
Individualism
Freedom
External conformity
Humanitarianism
Youthfulness
Fitness and health
Core values are not only an american phenomenon
Toward a shopping culture
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Subcultures and Consumer Behavior
What is subculture?
Nationality subcultures
Hispanic subcultures
Religious subcultures
Geographic and regional subcultures
Racial subcultures
The african american consumer
Asian american consumers
Age subcultures
The generation Y market
The generation X market
The baby boomer market
Older consumers
Sex as a subculture
Sex roles and consumer behavior
Consumer products and sex roles
Women as depicted in media and advertising
The working woman
Subcultural interaction
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior: An International Perspective
The imperative to be multinational
Acquiring exposure to other cultures
Country-of-origin effects
What is national identity?
Cross-cultural consumer analysis
Similarities and differences among people
The growing global middle class
Acculturation is a needed marketing viewpoint
Applying research techniques
Alternative multinational strategies: global versus local
Favoring a world brand
Are global brands different?
Multinational reactions to brand extensions
Adaptive global marketing
Frameworks for assessing multinational strategies
Cross-cultural psychographic segmentation
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
The Consumer's Decision-Making Process
Consumer Influence and the Diffusion of Innovations
What is opinion leadership?
Word-of-mouth in today's always in contact world
Dynamics of the opinion leadership process
Credibility
Positive and negative product information
Information and advice
Opinion leadership is category specific
Opinion leadership is a two-way street
The motivation behind opinion leadership
The needs of opinion leaders
The needs of opinion receivers
Purchase pals
Surrogate buyers versus opinion leaders
Measurement of opinion leadership
A profile of the opinion leader
Frequency and overlap of opinion leadership
Market mavens
The situational environment of opinion leadership
The interpersonal flow of communication
Multistep flow of communication theory
Advertising designed to stimulate/simulate word-of-mouth
Word-of-mouth may be uncontrollable
Marketers seek to take control of the opinion leadership process
Creating products with built-in buzz potential
Strategy designed to simulate buzz
Diffusion of innovations
The diffusion process
The innovation
The channels of communication
The social system
Time
The adoption process
Stages in the adoption process
The adoption process and information sources
A profile of the consumer innovator
Defining the consumer innovator
Interest in the product category
The innovator is an opinion leader
Personality traits
Social characteristics
Demographic characteristics
Are there generalized consumer innovators?
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Consumer Decision Making and Beyond
What is a decision?
Levels of consumer decision making
Extensive problem solving
Limited problem solving
Routinized response behavior
Models of consumers: four views of consumer decision making
An economic view
A passive view
A cognitive view
An emotional view
A model of consumer decision making
Input
Process
Output
Consumer gifting behavior
Beyond the decision: consuming and possessing
Products have special meanings and memories
Relationship marketing
Summary
Discussion Questions
Exercises
Key Terms
Notes
Cases
Glossary
Index

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