Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives

ISBN-10: 0131755935

ISBN-13: 9780131755932

Edition: 8th 2009

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Description: Provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instructionand illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples.Describes a specific procedure for writing objectivesone that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. Stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning assessment process and how they can be used to improve student learning. Includes material on the use of a table of specifications for item writing; information and new illustrations on how to prepare assessment instruments; five chapters on writing objectives for specific skillscognitive, affective, and performance; and two chapters on using objectives in constructing and interpreting achievement assessments.For use as a supplement to elementary, middle-school, secondary, and K-12 general methods teachers who want to become proficient at writing instructional objectives early in their career.

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Book details

List price: $54.60
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 1/16/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 176
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.946
Language: English

Preparing Instructional Objectives
Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes
Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes
Levels of Goals and Objectives
Objectives at the Training Level
Objectives for Higher-Level Learning Outcomes
Uses of Instructional Objectives
Role of Objectives in Teaching
Role of Objectives in Student Learning
Role of Objectives in Formative and Summative Assessment
Role of Objectives in Communicating Instructional Intent to Others
Role of Objectives in Evaluating Instruction
Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process
Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes
What About Standards?
Summary
Exercises
Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives
Stating the General Instructional Objectives
Selecting the Proper Level of Generality
Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes
Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes
Emphasizing Instructional Intent
Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study
Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planning
Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes Are Relevant
Revising the General Objectives as Needed
Summary
Exercises
Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessment
Planning for Instruction
Planning for Assessment
Assessment Before Instruction
Assessment During Instruction
Assessment at the End of Instruction
Preparing and Using Assessment Procedures
Summary
Exercises
Content Standards and Instructional Objectives
Nature of Content Standards
Need for Instructional Objectives
Summary
Exercises
Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectives
Using a Frame of Reference as a Guide
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Webb's Depth of Knowledge Framework
Cautions in Using Any Framework as a Guide
Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives
Curriculum Guides
Books and Special Reports
Test Manuals
Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives
Do the Objectives Indicate Learning Outcomes That Are Appropriate to the Instructional Area?
Do the Objectives Represent All Logical Learning Outcomes of the Instructional Area?
Are the Objectives Attainable by These Particular Students?
Are the Objectives in Harmony with the Philosophy of the School in Which the Instruction Is to Be Given?
Are the Objectives in Harmony with Basic Principles of Learning?
Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively
Summary
Exercises
Writing Instructional Objectives for Various Outcomes
Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes
Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction
The Problem of Limiting Objectives to Intellectual Outcomes
Summary
Exercises
Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills
Making a Useful List of Outcomes
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction
Affective Components of Thinking
Summary
Exercises
Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes
Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories
Basing Statements on Traditional Categories
Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction
Deciding if Affective Outcomes Should Be Stated Separately
Summary
Exercises
Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products
Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes
Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes
Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes
Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives for Skills and Products
Summary
Exercises
Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects
Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects
Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects
Summary
Exercises
Using Instructional Objectives in Assessment
Using Objectives in Achievement Testing
Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives
Objectives for a Unit in Economics
Outlining the Content
Content Outline for a Unit in Economics (Money and Banking)
Preparing the Table of Specifications
Constructing Relevant Test Items
Using a Simple Table for Item Writing
Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing
Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Results
Summary
Exercises
Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment
Assessing Performance Skills
Rating Scales
Checklists
Holistic Scoring Rubrics
Assessing Affective Outcomes
Rating Scales and Checklists
Self-Report Method
Using Student Portfolios
Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments
Summary
Exercises
Checklist for Evaluating the Final List of Objectives
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Major Categories and Illustrative Objectives)
Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Depth-of-Knowledge by Subject Descriptors
Illustrative Verbs
Answers to Exercises
References
Index
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