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Introduction and Data Collection | |

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Using Statistics: Good Tunes | |

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Basic Concepts of Statistics | |

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The Growth of Statistics and Information Technology | |

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How This Text Is Organized | |

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The Importance of Collecting Data | |

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Identifying Sources of Data | |

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Types of Data | |

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Levels of Measurement and Types of Measurement Scales | |

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Summary | |

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Introduction to Using Software | |

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Presenting Data in Tables and Charts | |

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Using Statistics: Comparing the Performance of Mutual Funds | |

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Tables and Charts for Categorical Data | |

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The Summary Table | |

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The Bar Chart | |

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The Pie Chart | |

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The Pareto Diagram | |

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Organizing Numerical Data | |

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The Ordered Array | |

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The Stem-and-Leaf Display | |

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Tables and Charts for Numerical Data | |

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The Frequency Distribution | |

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The Relative Frequency Distribution and the Percentage Distribution | |

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The Cumulative Distribution | |

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The Histogram | |

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The Polygon | |

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The Cumulative Percentage Polygon (Ogive) | |

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Cross Tabulations | |

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The Contingency Table | |

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The Side-by-Side Bar Chart | |

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Scatter Diagrams and Time Series Plots | |

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The Scatter diagram | |

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The Time series plot | |

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Misusing Graphs and Ethical Issues | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Tables and Charts | |

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Numerical Descriptive Measures | |

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Using Statistics: Comparing the Performance of Mutual Funds | |

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Measures of Central Tendency, Variation, and Shape | |

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The Mean | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Quartiles | |

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The Geometric Mean | |

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The Range | |

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The Interquartile Range | |

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The Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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The Coefficient of Variation | |

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Shape | |

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Visual Explorations: Exploring Descriptive Statistics | |

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Microsoft Excel Descriptive Statistics Output | |

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Minitab Descriptive Statistics Output | |

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Descriptive Numerical Measures for a Population | |

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The Population Mean | |

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The Population Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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The Empirical Rule | |

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The Chebychev Rule | |

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Computing Descriptive Numerical Measures from a Frequency Distribution | |

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Exploratory Data Analysis | |

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The Five-Number Summary | |

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The Box-and-Whisker Plot | |

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The Covariance and the Coefficient of Correlation | |

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The Covariance | |

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The Coefficient of Correlation | |

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Pitfalls in Numerical Descriptive Measures and Ethical Issues | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Descriptive Statistics | |

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Basic Probability | |

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Using Statistics: The Consumer Electronics Company | |

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Basic Probability Concepts | |

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Sample Spaces and Events | |

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Contingincy Tables and Venn Diagrams | |

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Simple (Marginal) Probability | |

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Joint Probability | |

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General Addition Rule | |

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Conditional Probability | |

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Computing Conditional Probabilities | |

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Decision Trees | |

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Statistical Independence | |

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Multiplication Rule | |

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Bayes' Theorem | |

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Counting Rules | |

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Ethical Issues and Probability | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Basic Probability | |

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Some Important Discrete Probability Distributions | |

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Using Statistics: The Accounting Information System of the Saxon Plumbing Company | |

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The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable | |

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Expected Value of a Discrete Random Variable | |

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Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable | |

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Covariance and Its Application in Finance | |

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The Covariance | |

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The Expected Value, Variance, and Standard Deviation of the Sum of Two Random Variables | |

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Portfolio Expected Return and Portfolio Risk | |

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Binomial Distribution | |

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Poisson Distribution | |

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Hypergeometric Distribution | |

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CD ROM Topic : Using the Poisson Distribution to Approximate the Binomial Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for the Covariance and for Discrete Probability Distributions | |

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The Normal Distribution and Other Continuous Distributions | |

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Using Statistics: Download Time for a Web Site Home Page | |

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Continuous Probability Distributions | |

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The Normal Distribution | |

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Evaluating Normality | |

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Evaluating the Properties | |

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Constructing the Normal Probability Plot | |

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The Uniform Distribution | |

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The Exponential Distribution | |

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The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

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Need for a Correction for Continuity Adjustment | |

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Approximating the Binomial Distribution | |

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Computing a Probability Approximation for an Individual Value | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software with Continuous Probability Distributions | |

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Sampling Distributions | |

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Using Statistics: The Oxford Cereal Company Packaging Process | |

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Sampling Distributions | |

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Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

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The Unbiased Property of the Sample Mean | |

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Standard Error of the Mean | |

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Sampling from Normally Distributed Populations | |

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Sampling from Nonnormally Distributed Populations The Central Limit Theorem | |

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Sampling Distribution of the Proportion | |

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Types of Survey Sampling Methods | |

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Simple Random Sample | |

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Systematic Sample | |

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Stratified Sample | |

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The Cluster Sample | |

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Evaluating Survey Worthiness | |

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Survey Errors | |

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Ethical Issues | |

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CD ROM Topic Sampling from Finite Populations | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Sampling Distributions | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation | |

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Using Statistics: Auditing Invoices at the Saxon Home Improvement Company | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean (ï¿½ï¿½ Known) | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean (ï¿½ï¿½ Unknown) | |

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Student's t Distribution | |

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The Concept of Degrees of Freedom | |

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The Confidence Interval Statement | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion | |

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Determining Sample Size | |

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Sample Size Determination for the Mean | |

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Sample Size Determination for the Proportion | |

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Applications of Confidence Interval Estimation in Auditing | |

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Estimating the Population Total Amount | |

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Difference Estimation | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation and Ethical Issues | |

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CD ROM Topic: Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Confidence Interval Estimation | |

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Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing | |

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Using Statistics: The Oxford Cereal Company Packaging Process | |

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Hypothesis-Testing Methodology | |

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The Null and Alternative Hypotheses | |

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The Critical Value of the Test Statistic | |

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Regions of Rejection and Nonrejection | |

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Risks in Decision Making using Hypothesis Testing Methodology | |

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Z Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (ï¿½ï¿½ Known) | |

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The Critical Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing | |

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The p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing | |

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A Connection between Confidence Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing One-Tailed Tests | |

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One-Tail Tests | |

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The Critical Value Approach | |

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The p-Value Approach | |

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t Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (ï¿½ï¿½ Unknown) | |

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Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion | |

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The Power of a Test | |

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Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | |

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Two-Sample Tests | |

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Comparing The Means of Two Independent Samples | |

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Z test for the Difference between Two Means | |

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Pooled - Variance test for the Difference between Two Means | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference between the Means of two Independent Groups | |

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Separate - Variance test for the Difference between Two Means | |

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Comparing the Means of Two Related Populations | |

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The Paired Test | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Difference | |

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Comparing Two Population Proportions | |

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Z Test for the Difference between Two Proportions | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference between Two Proportions | |

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F Test for the Difference between Two Variances | |

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Finding Lower-Tail Critical Values | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis for Numerical Data | |

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Analysis of Variance | |

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Using Statistics: The Perfect Parachute Company | |

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The Completely Randomized Design: One-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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F Test for Differences in More than Two Means | |

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Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey-Kramer Procedure | |

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ANOVA Assumptions | |

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Levene's Test for Homogeneity of Variance | |

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The Randomized Block Design | |

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Tests for the Treatment and Block Effects | |

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Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey Procedure | |

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The Factorial Design: Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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Testing for Factor and Interaction Effects | |

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Interpreting Interaction Effects | |

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Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey Procedure | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for ANOVA | |

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Chi-Square Tests and Nonparametric Tests | |

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Using Statistics: Guest Satisfaction at T. C. Resort Properties | |

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Chi-Square Test for Differences between Two Proportions (Independent Samples) | |

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Chi-Square Test for Differences among More than Two Proportions | |

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Chi-Square Test of Independence | |

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McNemar Test for the Difference between Two Proportions (Related Samples) | |

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Chi-Square Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation | |

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Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Tests | |

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Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test for the Poisson Distribution | |

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Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test for the Normal Distribution | |

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Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Nonparametric Analysis for Two Independent Populations | |

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Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test: Nonparametric Analysis for Two Related Populations | |

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Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test: Nonparametric Analysis for the One-Way Design | |

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Friedman Rank Test: Nonparametric Analysis for the Randomized Block Design | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Chi-Square Tests and Nonparametric Tests | |

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Simple Linear Regression | |

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Using Statistics: Forecasting Sales at the Sunflowers Clothing Stores | |

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Types of Regression Models | |

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The Least-Squares Method | |

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Visual Explorations: Exploring Simple Linear Regression Coefficients | |

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Predictions in Regression Analysis: Interpolation versus Extrapolation | |

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Measures of Variation | |

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Computing the Sum of Squares | |

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The Coefficient of Determination | |

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Standard Error of the Estimate | |

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Assumptions | |

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Residual Analysis | |

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Evaluating the Assumptions | |

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Measuring Autocorrelation: The Durbin-Watson Statistic | |

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Residual Plots to Detect Autocorrelation | |

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The Durbin-Watson Statistic | |

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Inferences about the Slope and Correlation Coefficient Test for the Slope | |

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F Test for the Slope | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate for the Slope | |

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t Test for the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Estimation of Predicted Values | |

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The Confidence Interval Estimate | |

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The Prediction Interval | |

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Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Simple Linear Regression | |

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Introduction to Multiple Regression | |

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Using Statistics: Predicting OmniPower Sales | |

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Developing the Multiple Regression Model | |

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Interpreting the Regression Coefficients | |

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Predicting the Dependent Variable Y | |

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R2, Adjusted R2, and the Overall F test 000 | |

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Coefficients of Multiple Determination | |

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Test for the Significance of the overall Multiple Regression Model | |

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Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model | |

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Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients | |

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Test of Hypothesis | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation | |

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Testing Portions of the Multiple Regression Model | |

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Coefficient of Partial Determination | |

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Using Dummy-Variables and Interaction Terms in Regression Models | |

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Interactions | |

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Logistic Regression | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Multiple Regression | |

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Multiple Regression Model Building | |

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Using Statistics: Predicting Standby Hours for Unionized Artists | |

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The Quadratic Regression Model | |

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Finding the Regression Coefficients and Predicting Y | |

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Testing for the Significance of the Quadratic Effect | |

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Testing the Quadratic Effect | |

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The Coefficient of Multiple Determination | |

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Using Transformations in Regression Models | |

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The Square Root Transformation | |

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The Log Transformation | |

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Influence Analysis | |

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Collinearity | |

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Model Building | |

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The Stepwise Regression Approach to Model Building | |

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The Best-Subsets Approach to Model Building | |

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Model Validation | |

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Pitfalls in Multiple Regression and Ethical Issues | |

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Pitfalls in Multiple Regression | |

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Ethical Issues | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Multiple Regression Model Building | |

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Time-Series Forecasting and Index Numbers | |

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Using Statistics: Forecasting Revenues for Three Companies | |

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The Importance of Business Forecasting | |

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Component Factors of the Classical Multiplicative Time-Series Model | |

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Smoothing the Annual Time Series | |

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Moving Averages | |

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Exponential Smoothing | |

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Least-Squares Trend Fitting and Forecasting | |

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The Linear Trend Model | |

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The Quadratic Trend Model | |

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The Exponential Trend Model | |

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The Holt-Winters Method for Trend-Fitting and Forecasting | |

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Autoregressive Modeling for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | |

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Choosing an Appropriate Forecasting Model | |

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Performing a Residual Analysis | |

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Measuring the Magnitude of the Residual Error through Squared or Absolute Differences | |

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Principle of Parsimony | |

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Time-Series Forecasting of Monthly or Quarterly Data | |

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Least-Squares Forecasting with Monthly or Quarterly Data | |

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Index Numbers | |

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The Price Index | |

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Aggregate Price Indexes | |

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Weighted Aggregate Price Indexes | |

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Paasche Price Index | |

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Some Common Price Indexes | |

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Pitfalls Concerning Time-Series Analysis | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Time-Series Forecasting and Index Numbers | |

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Decision Making | |

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Using Statistics: Selecting Stocks | |

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Payoff Tables and Decision Trees | |

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Criteria for Decision Making | |

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Expected Monetary Value | |

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Expected Opportunity Loss | |

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Return-to-Risk Ratio | |

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Decision Making with Sample Information | |

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Utility | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Decision Making | |

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Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management | |

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Total Quality Management | |

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Six Sigmaï¿½“ Management | |

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The Theory of Control Charts | |

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Control Chart for the Proportion of Nonconforming Items The p Chart | |

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The Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability | |

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Control Chart for an Area of Opportunity the c Chart | |

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Control Charts for the Range and the Mean | |

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The R Chart: A Control Chart for Dispersion | |

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The Chart | |

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Process Capability | |

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Customer Satisfaction and Specification Limits | |

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Capability Indices | |

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CPL, CPU, Cpk | |

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Summary | |

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Using Software for Control Charts | |

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Answers to Self-Test Problems | |

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Answers to Even-Numbered Problems | |

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Appendices | |

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Review of Arithmetic and Algebra | |

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Summation Notation | |

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Statistical Symbols and Greek Alphabet | |

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CD-ROM Contents | |

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Tables | |

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Configuring and Customizing Microsoft Excel For Use With This Text | |

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PHStat2 User's Guide | |

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Index | |

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CD-ROM Topics | |